James II

1633–1701, king of England, Ireland, and Scotland 1685–88 (son of Charles I of England).
1430–60, king of Scotland (1437–60), son of James I
1633–1701, king of England, Ireland, and, as James VII, of Scotland (1685–88); son of Charles I. His pro-Catholic sympathies and arbitrary rule caused the Whigs and Tories to unite in inviting his eldest surviving daughter, Mary, and her husband, William of Orange, to take the throne as joint monarchs. James was defeated at the Boyne (1690) when he attempted to regain the throne


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