Edward, 1749–1823, English physician: discoverer of smallpox vaccine.
Sir William, 1815–98, English physician and pathologist.
Contemporary Examples

Kendall Jenner Bares Breasts at Marc Jacobs; Raf Simons Previews Home Goods Collection The Fashion Beast Team February 13, 2014
When Harry Met Cancer Itay Hod April 9, 2014
Kendall Tries to Outdo Kim by Straddling Cara Delevingne in Love Magazine Lizzie Crocker December 2, 2014
11 Life Lessons from The Hills Sujay Kumar, The Daily Beast Video July 11, 2010
Kendall Jenner Walks for Givenchy; Suzy Menkes Named Vogue’s International Editor The Fashion Beast Team March 2, 2014

Historical Examples

Warren Commission (5 of 26): Hearings Vol. V (of 15) The President’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy
The White Lie William Le Queux
A History of the English Church in New Zealand Henry Thomas Purchas
Cattle and Their Diseases Robert Jennings
The Every Day Book of History and Chronology Joel Munsell

Edward 1749–1823, English physician, who discovered vaccination by showing that injections of cowpox virus produce immunity against smallpox (1796)
Sir William. 1815–98, English physician and pathologist, who differentiated between typhus and typhoid fevers (1849)
British physician who pioneered the practice of vaccination. His experiments proved that individuals who had been inoculated with the virus that caused cowpox, a mild skin disease of cattle, became immune to smallpox. Jenner’s discovery laid the foundations for the science of immunology.

Our Living Language : In 1980 the World Health Organization declared that the deadly disease smallpox had been eradicated, an accomplishment attributed to the success of the smallpox vaccine. The vaccine had been developed almost 200 years earlier by the British physician Edward Jenner, who had based his work on a piece of folk wisdom from the countryside that few doctors had taken seriously: people who caught cowpox, a mild viral infection of cattle, never got smallpox. In 1796 Jenner proved the truth of this scientifically in a famous experiment he conducted on an eight-year-old boy named James Phipps. Jenner exposed Phipps to a person with cowpox, then two months later exposed him to smallpox (this would be considered unethical by today’s standards). As Jenner expected, the boy warded off the smallpox without any complications. Prior to this, there existed a form of vaccination against smallpox that consisted of exposing people to a mild form of the disease. Although this method often worked, it was risky, and the exposed person sometimes died. Jenner, who devised the word vaccination from the Latin vacca, for “cow,” is considered to be the father of immunology. He also did significant research on heart disease.


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