(Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti) 1792–1878, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1846–78.
original name Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti. 1792–1878, Italian ecclesiastic; pope (1846–78). He refused to recognize the incorporation of Rome and the Papal States in the kingdom of Italy, confining himself to the Vatican after 1870. He decreed the dogma of the Immaculate Conception (1854) and convened the Vatican Council, which laid down the doctrine of papal infallibility (1870)
- Pius V
noun 1. Saint (Michele Ghislieri) 1504–72, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1566–72. noun 1. Saint. original name Michele Ghislieri. 1504–72, Italian ecclesiastic; pope (1566–72). He attempted to enforce the reforms decreed by the Council of Trent, excommunicated Elizabeth I of England (1570), and organized the alliance that defeated the Turks at Lepanto (1571). Feast day: 30 April
- Pius VII
noun 1. (Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti) 1740–1823, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1800–23. noun 1. original name Luigi Barnaba Chiaramonti. 1740–1823, Italian ecclesiastic; pope (1800–23). He concluded a concordat with Napoleon (1801) and consecrated him as emperor of France (1804), but resisted his annexation of the Papal States (1809)
- Pius VIII
noun 1. (Francesco Saverio Castiglioni) 1761–1830, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1829–30.
- Pius X
noun 1. Saint (Giuseppe Sarto) 1835–1914, Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1903–14. noun 1. Saint. original name Giuseppe Sarto. 1835–1914, Italian ecclesiastic; pope (1903–14). He condemned Modernism (1907) and initiated a new codification of canon law. Feast day: Aug 21