Poison



[poi-zuh n] /ˈpɔɪ zən/

noun
1.
a substance with an inherent property that tends to destroy life or impair health.
2.
something harmful or pernicious, as to happiness or well-being:
the poison of slander.
3.
Slang. any variety of alcoholic liquor:
Name your poison!
verb (used with object)
4.
to administer poison to (a person or animal).
5.
to kill or injure with or as if with poison.
6.
to put poison into or upon; saturate with poison:
to poison food.
7.
to ruin, vitiate, or corrupt:
Hatred had poisoned his mind.
8.
Chemistry. to destroy or diminish the activity of (a catalyst or enzyme).
adjective
9.
causing poisoning; :
a poison shrub.
/ˈpɔɪzən/
noun
1.
any substance that can impair function, cause structural damage, or otherwise injure the body related adjective toxic
2.
something that destroys, corrupts, etc: the poison of fascism
3.
a substance that retards a chemical reaction or destroys or inhibits the activity of a catalyst
4.
a substance that absorbs neutrons in a nuclear reactor and thus slows down the reaction. It may be added deliberately or formed during fission
5.
(informal) what’s your poison?, what would you like to drink?
verb (transitive)
6.
to give poison to (a person or animal) esp with intent to kill
7.
to add poison to
8.
to taint or infect with or as if with poison
9.
(foll by against) to turn (a person’s mind) against: he poisoned her mind against me
10.
to retard or stop (a chemical or nuclear reaction) by the action of a poison
11.
to inhibit or destroy (the activity of a catalyst) by the action of a poison
n.

c.1200, “a deadly potion or substance,” also figuratively, from Old French poison, puison (12c., Modern French poison) “a drink,” especially a medical drink, later “a (magic) potion, poisonous drink” (14c.), from Latin potionem (nominative potio) “a drinking, a drink,” also “poisonous drink” (Cicero), from potare “to drink” (see potion).

For form evolution from Latin to French, cf. raison from rationem. The Latin word also is the source of Old Spanish pozon, Italian pozione, Spanish pocion. The more usual Indo-European word for this is represented in English by virus. The Old English word was ator (see attercop) or lybb. Slang sense of “alcoholic drink” first attested 1805, American English.

For sense evolution, cf. Old French enerber, enherber “to kill with poisonous plants.” In many Germanic languages “poison” is named by a word equivalent to English gift (cf. Old High German gift, German Gift, Danish and Swedish gift; Dutch gift, vergift). This shift might have been partly euphemistic, partly by influence of Greek dosis “a portion prescribed,” literally “a giving,” used by Galen and other Greek physicians to mean an amount of medicine (see dose (n.)).

Figuratively from late 15c.; of persons by 1910. As an adjective from 1520s; with plant names from 18c. Poison ivy first recorded 1784; poison oak is from 1743. Poison gas first recorded 1915. Poison-pen (letter) popularized 1913 by a notorious criminal case in Pennsylvania, U.S.; the phrase dates to 1898.
v.

“to give poison to; kill with poison,” c.1300, from Old French poisonner “to give to drink,” and directly from poison (n.). Figuratively from late 14c. Related: Poisoned; poisoning.

poison poi·son (poi’zən)
n.

v. poi·soned, poi·son·ing, poi·sons
To kill or harm with poison.

noun

Related Terms

snake poison, name your poison

(1.) Heb. hemah, “heat,” the poison of certain venomous reptiles (Deut. 32:24, 33; Job 6:4; Ps. 58:4), causing inflammation. (2.) Heb. rosh, “a head,” a poisonous plant (Deut. 29:18), growing luxuriantly (Hos. 10:4), of a bitter taste (Ps. 69:21; Lam. 3:5), and coupled with wormwood; probably the poppy. This word is rendered “gall”, q.v., (Deut. 29:18; 32:33; Ps. 69:21; Jer. 8:14, etc.), “hemlock” (Hos. 10:4; Amos 6:12), and “poison” (Job 20:16), “the poison of asps,” showing that the _rosh_ was not exclusively a vegetable poison. (3.) In Rom. 3:13 (comp. Job 20:16; Ps. 140:3), James 3:8, as the rendering of the Greek ios.

In addition to the idiom beginning with poison

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