Celiac sprue: An immune disorder whereby the small intestine is injured when exposed to gluten, a protein found in wheat and related grains. Celiac sprue causes impaired absorption and digestion of nutrients through the small intestine. Symptoms include frequent diarrhea and weight loss. A skin condition called dermatitis herpetiformis is sometimes associated. The most accurate test for celiac sprue is a biopsy of the small bowel. Treatment involves avoidance of gluten in the diet. Medications are used for refractory (stubborn) sprue. Also known as gluten enteropathy.
- Cell cloning
Cell cloning: The process of producing a group of cells that are genetically identical (clones) to a single ancestral cell.
- Cell cycle
Cell cycle: The sequence of events within the cell between mitotic (cell) divisions. The cell cycle is conventionally divided into five phases: G0 (the gap); G1, (the first gap); S (the synthesis phase, during which the DNA is synthesized and replicated); G2 (the second gap); and M (mitosis). Cells that are not destined to divide […]
- Cell fusion
Cell fusion: The melding of two or more cells into one cell called a heterokaryon. A heterokaryon may reproduce itself for at least several generations. Cell fusion provides a method for assigning specific genes to specific chromosomes. When an undifferentiated stem cell fuses with a mature differentiated cell, the resultant cell can retain the mature […]
- Cell lineage
Cell lineage: A genealogic pedigree of cells related through mitotic division.
- Cell sorter, fluorescence-activated
Cell sorter, fluorescence-activated: A flow cytometer (a scientific instrument used to measure the characteristics of individual cells) that is modified for the purpose of separating (sorting) cells based on the amount of light (fluorescence) emitted by each cell. The abbreviation for fluorescence-activated cell sorter is FACS (pronounced like “fax”).