Stands for variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, a human disease thought due to the same infectious agent as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), or mad cow disease. Both the human and bovine disorders are invariably fatal brain diseases with unusually long incubation periods measured in years, and are caused by an unconventional transmissible agent, a prion, resulting in the deposition of amyloid tissue that causes a breakdown of brain tissue leaving the infected brain with a “spongy” (“spongiform”) appearance. The disease in humans is sometimes called new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (nvCJD).
The BSE agent has been identified in the brain, spinal cord, retina, dorsal root ganglia (nervous tissue located near the backbone), and the bone marrow of cattle experimentally infected with this agent by the oral route. In addition to cattle, sheep are susceptible to experimental infection with the BSE agent by the oral route. Thus, in countries where flocks of sheep and goats may have been exposed to the BSE agent through contaminated feed, there exists a theoretical risk that these animals may have developed infections caused by the BSE agent and that these infections have been maintained in the flocks, even in the absence of continued exposure to contaminated feed (for example, through maternal transmission).
Everyone with vCJD appear to have eaten beef and beef products at some time during their lives (but then so have most of the population). Investigation of a cluster of cases with vCJD in the UK disclosed that most of the people were likely infected through their diet. Beef carcass meat appears to have been contaminated with the BSE agent in butchers’ shops where cattle heads were split.
Vaginal Birth After Cesarian section. Although the abbreviation VBAC (pronounced VEE-back) does not appear in standard medical dictionaries, it is in active international use.
- Vibration white finger
The original name for a painful and potentially disabling condition of the fingers, hands, and arms due to vibration. Known now preferably as the hand-arm vibration syndrome. In this syndrome, there is initially a tingling sensation in the fingers with numbness. The fingers then become white and swollen when cold and then red and painful […]
A group of bacteria that includes Vibrio cholerae, the agent that causes cholera. Other species are common in salt and fresh water as well as soil. Vibrio move about particularly actively.
- Vibrio cholerae
One of the Vibrio bacteria, V. cholerae (as the name implies) is the agent of cholera, a devastating and sometimes lethal disease with profuse watery diarrhea. Like other Vibrio, V. cholerae moves about actively. The word “vibrio” in Latin means “to quiver.”
- Vibrio vulnificus
CDC.gov. Vibrio vulnificus.