China



[chahy-nuh] /ˈtʃaɪ nə/

noun
1.
a translucent ceramic material, biscuit-fired at a high temperature, its glaze fired at a low temperature.
2.
any porcelain ware.
3.
plates, cups, saucers, etc., collectively.
4.
figurines made of porcelain or ceramic material, collectively:
a collection of china.
5.
Chiefly Midland and Southern U.S. a playing marble of china, or sometimes of porcelain or glass.
adjective
6.
made of china.
7.
indicating the twentieth event of a series, as a wedding anniversary.
[chahy-nuh] /ˈtʃaɪ nə/
noun
1.
People’s Republic of, a country in E Asia. 3,691,502 sq. mi. (9,560,990 sq. km).
Capital: Beijing.
2.
Republic of. Also called Nationalist China. a republic consisting mainly of the island of Taiwan off the SE coast of : under Nationalist control since 1948 but claimed by the . 13,885 sq. mi. (35,960 sq. km).
Capital: Taipei.
/ˈtʃaɪnə/
noun
1.
ceramic ware of a type originally from China
2.
any porcelain or similar ware
3.
cups, saucers, etc, collectively
4.
(modifier) made of china: a china tea service
/ˈtʃaɪnə/
noun
1.
(Brit & South African, informal) a friend or companion
/ˈtʃaɪnə/
noun
1.
People’s Republic of China, Communist China, Red China, a republic in E Asia: the third largest and the most populous country in the world; the oldest continuing civilization (beginning over 2000 years bc); republic established in 1911 after the overthrow of the Manchu dynasty by Sun Yat-sen; People’s Republic formed in 1949; the 1980s and 1990s saw economic liberalization but a rejection of political reform; contains vast deserts, steppes, great mountain ranges (Himalayas, Kunlun, Tian Shan, and Nan Shan), a central rugged plateau, and intensively cultivated E plains. Language: Chinese in various dialects, the chief of which is Mandarin. Religion: nonreligious majority; Buddhist and Taoist minorities. Currency: yuan. Capital: Beijing. Pop: 1 349 586 000 (2013 est). Area: 9 560 990 sq km (3 691 502 sq miles)
2.
Republic of China, Nationalist China, Taiwan, a republic (recognized as independent by only 24 nations) in E Asia occupying the island of Taiwan, 13 nearby islands, and 64 islands of the Penghu (Pescadores) group: established in 1949 by the Nationalist government of China under Chiang Kai-shek after its expulsion by the Communists from the mainland; its territory claimed by the People’s Republic of China since the political separation from the mainland; under US protection 1954–79; lost its seat at the UN to the People’s Republic of China in 1971; state of war with the People’s Republic of China formally ended in 1991, though tensions continue owing to the unresolved territorial claim. Language: Mandarin Chinese. Religion: nonreligious majority, Buddhist and Taoist minorities. Currency: New Taiwan dollar. Capital: Taipei. Pop: 22 610 000 (2003 est). Area: 35 981 sq km (13 892 sq miles) Former name Formosa
n.

“porcelain imported from China,” 1570s, short for Chinaware, China dishes, etc.; from the country name (see China).
n.

Asian country name, 1550s, of uncertain origin, probably ultimately from Sanskrit Cina-s “the Chinese” (earliest European usage is in Italian, by Marco Polo), perhaps from Qin dynasty, which ruled 3c. B.C.E. Latinized as Sina, hence sinologist. The Chinese word for the country is Chung-kuo (Wade-Giles), Zhongguo (Pinyin).

Nation in eastern Asia, bordered by Russia and North Korea to the east; Russia and Mongolia to the north; Russia and Afghanistan to the west; and Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Burma, Laos, and Vietnam to the south. Its capital is Beijing, and its largest city is Shanghai.

Note: China is the most populous country in the world and the third largest, after Russia and Canada.

Note: The Boxer Rebellion of 1900 grew out of strong resentment of foreign influence in China.

Note: A revolution in 1911 overthrew the Qing dynasty, ending the two-thousand-year-old imperial system.

Note: Chiang Kai-shek, the leader of the Chinese Nationalists, established the government of Nationalist China in 1928 in Nanjing.

Note: The Second Sino-Japanese War, which lasted from 1937 to 1945 (merging with World War II in 1941), grew out of Japanese encroachments on Chinese land.

Note: The Chinese communists, with Mao Zedong as their leader, defeated Chiang’s Nationalists in 1949, proclaiming the People’s Republic of China. The Nationalists withdrew to the island of Taiwan.

Note: In 1950, Chinese forces joined the North Korean army in the Korean War.

Note: In 1958, Mao undertook the “Great Leap Forward” campaign, a crash program of industrialization, but none of its goals were reached, and the effort collapsed.

Note: In 1960, the ideological split between the Soviet Union and China widened, and the Soviets withdrew all aid.

Note: In the mid-1960s, Mao’s wife, acting on his behalf, and three colleagues, later known as the Gang of Four, advanced the goals of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, aimed at eliminating old ideas and customs. Mobs attacked schools and cultural centers, brutally disrupting the entire nation. With the death of Mao in 1976 and the trial of the Gang of Four in 1980, the Cultural Revolution came to an end.

Note: In 1972, President Richard Nixon visited China, reopening relations between mainland China and the United States.

Note: In 1989, the government brutally suppressed pro-democracy demonstrations in Tiananmen Square.

Note: Although China remains officially communist, its government encourages capitalism in designated areas, especially in its southeastern provinces. China has experienced considerable economic development in recent decades. Relations with the United States remain tense, especially over Taiwan, but the United States supported China’s admission to the World Trade Organization (WTO).

noun

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