Lean



[leen] /lin/

verb (used without object), leaned or (especially British) leant; leaning.
1.
to incline or bend from a vertical position:
She leaned out the window.
2.
to incline, as in a particular direction; slant:
The post leans to the left. The building leaned sharply before renovation.
3.
to incline in feeling, opinion, action, etc.:
to lean toward socialism.
4.
to rest against or on something for support:
to lean against a wall.
5.
to depend or rely (usually followed by on or upon):
someone he could lean on in an emergency.
verb (used with object), leaned or (especially British) leant; leaning.
6.
to incline or bend:
He leaned his head forward.
7.
to cause to lean or rest; prop:
to lean a chair against the railing.
noun
8.
the act or state of leaning; inclination:
The tower has a pronounced lean.
Verb phrases
9.
lean in,

10.
lean on, Informal.

Idioms
11.
lean over backward(s). 1 (def 21).
[leen] /lin/
adjective, leaner, leanest.
1.
(of persons or animals) without much flesh or fat; not plump or fat; thin:
lean cattle.
2.
(of edible meat) containing little or no fat.
3.
lacking in richness, fullness, quantity, etc.; poor:
a lean diet; lean years.
4.
spare; economical:
a lean prose style.
5.
Automotive. (of a mixture in a fuel system) having a relatively low ratio of fuel to air (contrasted with ).
6.
(of paint) having more pigment than oil.
Compare (def 12).
7.
Nautical. (of a bow) having fine lines; sharp.
8.
Metallurgy. (of ore) having a low mineral content; low-grade.
noun
9.
the part of flesh that consists of muscle rather than fat.
10.
the lean part of anything.
11.
Typesetting. matter that is difficult to set because of complexity or intermixed fonts.
Compare (def 23).
[leen] /lin/
noun
1.
David, 1908–91, British film director.
/liːn/
verb leans, leaning, leaned, leant
1.
foll by against, on, or upon. to rest or cause to rest against a support
2.
to incline or cause to incline from a vertical position
3.
(intransitive; foll by to or towards) to have or express a tendency or leaning
4.
(informal) lean over backwards, to make a special effort, esp in order to please
noun
5.
the condition of inclining from a vertical position
/liːn/
adjective
1.
(esp of a person or an animal) having no surplus flesh or bulk; not fat or plump
2.
not bulky or full
3.
(of meat) having little or no fat
4.
not rich, abundant, or satisfying
5.
(of a mixture of fuel and air) containing insufficient fuel and too much air: a lean mixture
6.
(of printer’s type) having a thin appearance
7.
(of a paint) containing relatively little oil
8.
(of an ore) not having a high mineral content
9.
(of concrete) made with a small amount of cement
noun
10.
the part of meat that contains little or no fat
/liːn/
noun
1.
Sir David. 1908–91, English film director. His films include In Which We Serve (1942), Blithe Spirit (1945), Brief Encounter (1946), Great Expectations (1946), Oliver Twist (1948), The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957), Lawrence of Arabia (1962), Dr Zhivago (1965), and A Passage to India (1984)
v.

c.1200, from Old English hleonian “to bend, recline, lie down, rest,” from Proto-Germanic *khlinen (cf. Old Saxon hlinon, Old Frisian lena, Middle Dutch lenen, Dutch leunen, Old High German hlinen, German lehnen “to lean”), from PIE root *klei- “to lean, to incline” (cf. Sanskrit srayati “leans,” sritah “leaning;” Old Persian cay “to lean;” Lithuanian slyti “to slope,” slieti “to lean;” Latin clinare “to lean, bend,” clivus “declivity,” inclinare “cause to bend,” declinare “bend down, turn aside;” Greek klinein “to cause to slope, slant, incline;” Old Irish cloin “crooked, wrong;” Middle Irish cle, Welsh cledd “left,” literally “slanting;” Welsh go-gledd “north,” literally “left” — for similar sense evolution, see Yemen, Benjamin, southpaw).

Meaning “to incline the body against something for support” is mid-13c. Figurative sense of “to trust for support” is from early 13c. Sense of “to lean toward mentally, to favor” is from late 14c. Related: Leaned; leaning. Colloquial lean on “put pressure on” (someone) is first recorded 1960.
adj.

“thin, spare, with little flesh or fat,” c.1200, from Old English hlæne “lean, thin,” possibly from hlænan “cause to lean or bend,” from Proto-Germanic *khlainijan, which would connect it to Old English hleonian (see lean (v.)). But perhaps rather, according to OED, from a PIE *qloinio- (cf. Lithuanian klynas “scrap, fragment,” Lettish kleins “feeble”). Extended and figurative senses from early 14c. The noun meaning “lean animals or persons” is from c.1200, from the adjective.
n.

“action or state of leaning,” 1776, from lean (v.).

An experimental language from the University of Nijmegen and University of East Anglia, based on graph rewriting and useful as an intermediate language. Lean is descended from Dactl0.
Clean is a subset of Lean.
[“Towards an Intermediate Language Based on Graph Rewriting”, H.P. Barendregt et al in PARLE: Parallel Architectures and Languages Europe, G. Goos ed, LNCS 259, Springer 1987, pp.159-175].
(1995-01-25)

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