Less



[les] /lɛs/

adverb, a compar. of little with least as superl.
1.
to a smaller extent, amount, or degree:
less exact.
2.
most certainly not (often preceded by much or still):
He could barely pay for his own lodging, much less for that of his friend.
3.
in any way different; other:
He is nothing less than a thief.
adjective, a compar. of little with least as superl.
4.
smaller in size, amount, degree, etc.; not so large, great, or much:
less money; less speed.
5.
lower in consideration, rank, or importance:
no less a person than the manager.
6.
fewer:
less than a dozen.
noun
7.
a smaller amount or quantity:
Hundreds of soldiers arrived, but less of them remained.
8.
something inferior or not as important:
He was tortured for less.
preposition
9.
minus; without:
a year less two days; six dollars less tax.
Idioms
10.
less than, by far short of being; not in the least; hardly at all:
The job is less than perfect.
[lit-l] /ˈlɪt l/
adjective, littler or less or lesser, littlest or least.
1.
small in size; not big; not large; tiny:
a little desk in the corner of the room.
2.
short in duration; not extensive; short; brief:
a little while.
3.
small in number:
a little group of scientists.
4.
small in amount or degree; not much:
little hope.
5.
of a certain amount; appreciable (usually preceded by a):
We’re having a little difficulty.
6.
being such on a small scale:
little farmers.
7.
younger or youngest:
He’s my little brother.
8.
not strong, forceful, or loud; weak:
a little voice.
9.
small in consideration, importance, position, affluence, etc.: little discomforts;
tax reductions to help the little fellow.
10.
mean, narrow, or illiberal:
a little mind.
11.
endearingly small or considered as such:
Bless your little heart!
12.
amusingly small or so considered:
a funny little way of laughing.
13.
contemptibly small, petty, mean, etc., or so considered:
filthy little political tricks.
adverb, less, least.
14.
not at all (used before a verb):
He little knows what awaits him.
15.
in only a small amount or degree; not much; slightly: a little-known work of art;
little better than a previous effort.
16.
seldom; rarely; infrequently:
We see each other very little.
noun
17.
a small amount, quantity, or degree: They did little to make him comfortable.
If you want some ice cream, there’s a little in the refrigerator.
18.
a short distance:
It’s down the road a little.
19.
a short time:
Stay here for a little.
Idioms
20.
in little, on a small scale; in miniature:
a replica in little of Independence Hall.
21.
little by little, by small degrees; gradually:
The water level rose little by little.
22.
make little of,

23.
not a little, to a great extent; very much; considerably:
It tired me not a little to stand for three hours.
24.
think little of, to treat casually; regard as trivial:
They think little of driving 50 miles to see a movie.
1.
an adjective suffix meaning “without” (childless; peerless), and in adjectives derived from verbs, indicating failure or inability to perform or be performed (resistless; tireless).
/lɛs/
determiner
1.

2.
(usually preceded by no) lower in rank or importance: no less a man than the president, St James the Less
3.
(informal) no less, used to indicate surprise or admiration, often sarcastic, at the preceding statement: she says she’s been to Italy, no less
4.
less of, to a smaller extent or degree: we see less of John these days, less of a success than I’d hoped
adverb
5.
the comparative of little (sense 1): she walks less than she should, less quickly, less beautiful
6.
much less, still less, used to reinforce a negative: we don’t like it, still less enjoy it
7.
think less of, to have a lower opinion of
preposition
8.
subtracting; minus: three weeks less a day
suffix
1.
without; lacking: speechless
2.
not able to (do something) or not able to be (done, performed, etc): countless
/ˈlɪtəl/
determiner
1.
(often preceded by a)

2.
not much: little damage was done
3.
make little of, See make of (sense 3)
4.
not a little

5.
quite a little, a considerable amount
6.
think little of, to have a low opinion of
adjective
7.
of small or less than average size
8.
young: a little boy, our little ones
9.
endearingly familiar; dear: my husband’s little ways
10.
contemptible, mean, or disagreeable: your filthy little mind
11.
(of a region or district) resembling another country or town in miniature: little Venice
12.
little game, a person’s secret intention or business: so that’s his little game!
13.
no little, considerable
adverb
14.
(usually preceded by a) in a small amount; to a small extent or degree; not a lot: to laugh a little
15.
(used preceding a verb) not at all, or hardly: he little realized his fate
16.
not much or often: we go there very little now
17.
little by little, by small degrees

Old English læs (adv.), læssa (adj.), comparative of læs “small;” from Proto-Germanic *lais-izo “smaller” (cf. Old Saxon, Old Frisian les “less;” Middle Dutch lise “soft, gentle,” German leise “soft”), from PIE root *leis- “small” (cf. Lithuanian liesas “thin”). Formerly also “younger,” as a translation of Latin minor, a sense now obsolete except in James the Less. Used as a comparative of little, but not related to it. The noun is Old English læsse.
adj.

Old English lytel “not large, not much; short in distance or time; unimportant,” also used in late Old English as a noun, “small piece; a short time,” from West Germanic *lutilla- (cf. Old Saxon luttil, Dutch luttel, Old High German luzzil, German lützel, Gothic leitils “little”), perhaps originally a diminutive of the root of Old English lyt “little, few,” from PIE *leud- “small.” “Often synonymous with small, but capable of emotional implications which small is not” [OED].

Phrase the little woman “wife” attested from 1795. Little people “the faeries” is from 1726; as “children,” it is attested from 1752; as “ordinary people” (opposed to the great), it is attested from 1827. Little Neck clams (1884) are so called for Little Neck, Long Island, a “neck” of land on the island’s North Shore. Little by little is from late 15c. (litylle be litille). Little green men “space aliens” is from 1950. Little black dress is from 1939.

At the beginning of summer, smart women who stay in town like to wear sheer “little black dresses.” Because most “little black dresses” look alike, retailers struggle each year to find something which will make them seem new. [“Life,” June 13, 1939]

Little Orphan Annie originally was (as Little Orphant Annie) the character in James Whitcomb Riley’s 1885 poem, originally titled “Elf Child.” The U.S. newspaper comic strip created by Harold Gray (1894-1968) debuted in 1924 in the New York “Daily News.”

LITTLE Orphant Annie’s come to our house to stay,
An’ wash the cups an’ saucers up, an’ brush the crumbs away,
An’ shoo the chickens off the porch, an’ dust the hearth, an’ sweep,
An’ make the fire, an’ bake the bread, an’ earn her board-an’-keep;
An’ all us other childern, when the supper-things is done,
We set around the kitchen fire an’ has the mostest fun
A-list’nin’ to the witch-tales ‘at Annie tells about,
An’ the Gobble-uns ‘at gits you
Ef you
Don’t
Watch
Out!

[Riley, “Elf Child”]

v.

OE lytlian, from root of little (adj.).

word-forming element meaning “lacking, cannot be, does not,” from Old English -leas, from leas “free (from), devoid (of), false, feigned,” from Proto-Germanic *lausaz (cf. Dutch -loos, German -los “-less,” Old Norse lauss “loose, free, vacant, dissolute,” Middle Dutch los, German los “loose, free,” Gothic laus “empty, vain”). Related to loose and lease.
In addition to the idiom beginning with
less

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  • Lessen

    [les-uh n] /ˈlɛs ən/ verb (used without object) 1. to become less. verb (used with object) 2. to make less; reduce. 3. Archaic. to represent as less; depreciate; disparage. /ˈlɛsən/ verb 1. to make or become less 2. (transitive) to make little of v. “to become less,” c.1300, from less + -en (1). Related: Lessened; […]



  • Lessened

    [les-uh n] /ˈlɛs ən/ verb (used without object) 1. to become less. verb (used with object) 2. to make less; reduce. 3. Archaic. to represent as less; depreciate; disparage. /ˈlɛsən/ verb 1. to make or become less 2. (transitive) to make little of v. “to become less,” c.1300, from less + -en (1). Related: Lessened; […]

  • Lessening

    [les-uh n] /ˈlɛs ən/ verb (used without object) 1. to become less. verb (used with object) 2. to make less; reduce. 3. Archaic. to represent as less; depreciate; disparage. /ˈlɛsən/ verb 1. to make or become less 2. (transitive) to make little of v. “to become less,” c.1300, from less + -en (1). Related: Lessened; […]



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