a speech defect consisting in pronouncing s and z like or nearly like the th- sounds of thin and this, respectively.
Phonetics. any unconventional articulation of the sibilants, as the pronunciation of s and z with the tongue between the teeth (lingual protrusion lisp) close to or touching the upper front teeth (dental lisp) or raised so that the breath is emitted laterally (lateral lisp)
the act, habit, or sound of lisping.
verb (used with or without object)
to pronounce or speak with a lisp.
to speak imperfectly, especially in a childish manner.
a high-level programming language that processes data in the form of lists: widely used in artificial intelligence applications.
the articulation of s and z like or nearly like the th sounds in English thin and then respectively
the habit or speech defect of pronouncing s and z in this manner
the sound of a lisp in pronunciation
to use a lisp in the pronunciation of (speech)
to speak or pronounce imperfectly or haltingly
a high-level computer-programming language suitable for work in artificial intelligence
late Old English awlyspian “to lisp,” from wlisp (adj.) “lisping,” probably of imitative origin (cf. Middle Dutch, Old High German lispen, Danish læspe, Swedish läspa). Related: Lisped; lisping.
1620s, from lisp (v.).
A speech defect or mannerism characterized by mispronunciation of the sounds (s) and (z) as (th) and (th). v. lisped, lisp·ing, lisps
To speak with a lisp.
LISt Processing language.
(Or mythically “Lots of Irritating Superfluous Parentheses”). Artificial Intelligence’s mother tongue, a symbolic, functional, recursive language based on the ideas of lambda-calculus, variable-length lists and trees as fundamental data types and the interpretation of code as data and vice-versa.
Data objects in Lisp are lists and atoms. Lists may contain lists and atoms. Atoms are either numbers or symbols. Programs in Lisp are themselves lists of symbols which can be treated as data. Most implementations of Lisp allow functions with side-effects but there is a core of Lisp which is purely functional.
All Lisp functions and programs are expressions that return values; this, together with the high memory use of Lisp, gave rise to Alan Perlis’s famous quip (itself a take on an Oscar Wilde quote) that “Lisp programmers know the value of everything and the cost of nothing”.
The original version was LISP 1, invented by John McCarthy firstname.lastname@example.org at MIT in the late 1950s. Lisp is actually older than any other high level language still in use except Fortran. Accordingly, it has undergone considerable change over the years. Modern variants are quite different in detail. The dominant HLL among hackers until the early 1980s, Lisp now shares the throne with C. See languages of choice.
One significant application for Lisp has been as a proof by example that most newer languages, such as COBOL and Ada, are full of unnecessary crocks. When the Right Thing has already been done once, there is no justification for bogosity in newer languages.
See also Association of Lisp Users, Common Lisp, Franz Lisp, MacLisp, Portable Standard Lisp, Interlisp, Scheme, ELisp, Kamin’s interpreters.
List Processing computer language
- Lisp 1
The original Lisp. Invented by John McCarthy et al at MIT in the late 50’s. Followed by LISP 1.5.
- Lisp 1.5
The second version of Lisp, successor to LISP 1. Developed at MIT in 1959. Followed by LISP 1.75, LISP 1.9, Lisp 2 and many other versions.
- Lisp 2
LISP 1.5 with an ALGOL 60-like surface syntax. Also optional type declarations, new data types including integer-indexed arrays and character strings, partial-word extraction/insertion operators and macros. A pattern-matching facility similar to COMIT was proposed. Implemented for the Q-32 computer. [“The LISP 2 Programming Language and System”, P.W. Abrahams et al, Proc FJCC 29:661-676, AFIPS (Fall […]
A Lisp dialect descended from MLISP and MLISP2. Also known as PLISP and VEL. Useful for parsing. Only the pattern-matching system was published and fully implemented. According to Alan Kay, LISP70 had an influence on Smalltalk-72. “The LISP70 Pattern Matching System, Larry Tesler et al, IJCAI 73.