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Rhetoric. the identification of a person by an epithet or appellative that is not the person’s name, as his lordship.
the use of the name of a person who was distinguished by a particular characteristic, as Don Juan or Annie Oakley, to designate a person or group of persons having the same characteristic.
Historical Examples

antonomasia is, whych for ye proper name putteth some other word: As: the Archebyshop confuted the errour, for Cranmer.
A Treatise of Schemes and Tropes Richard Sherry

noun (rhetoric)
the substitution of a title or epithet for a proper name, such as his highness
the use of a proper name for an idea: he is a Daniel come to judgment

use of an epithet for a proper name (or vice versa; e.g. His Holiness for the name of a pope), 1580s, from Latin, from Greek antonomasia, from antonomazein “to name instead, call by a new name,” from anti “instead” (see anti-) + onomazein “to name,” from onoma “name” (see name (n.)).


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