[huht-n] /ˈhʌt n/
James, 1726–97, Scottish geologist: formulated uniformitarianism.
James. 1726–97, Scottish geologist, regarded as the founder of modern geology
Sir Leonard, known as Len Hutton. 1916–90, English cricketer; the first professional captain of England (1953)
Scottish geologist whose theories of rock and land formation laid the foundation for modern geology. He showed that, over long periods of time, the erosion of rocks produces sediments, which are transported by water, ice, and air to locations at or near sea level. These sediments eventually become solidified into other rocks.
Our Living Language : The father of modern geology did not start out as a geologist. He first apprenticed with a lawyer and then earned a degree in medicine. But after he inherited some land, he decided to devote himself to agriculture, and this led him to think about the origin of soil and its relation to the rest of the landscape, especially the rocks. Based upon his observations, he concluded that old rocks are pushed upwards to become mountains, that new rocks form from the emergence and solidification of lava, and that the driving energy for both of these processes must be the Earth’s internal heat. He also concluded that soil forms from rocks through the long process of weathering. In this way Hutton developed the idea that the soil, the rocks, and the landscape were all connected in a single process, which he called Plutonism, in honor of Pluto, the Greek god of the underworld. Hutton realized that the cycle of uplift and erosion required a long time and that the Earth must therefore be much older than a few thousand years, as was widely believed at the time. But it was not until the twentieth century that Hutton’s theory was proven correct when geologists, using a technique called radiometric dating, demonstrated that the Earth is in fact more than four billion years old.
- James I
noun 1. 1566–1625, king of England and Ireland 1603–25; as James VI, king of Scotland 1567–1625 (son of Mary Stuart). noun 1. called the Conqueror. 1208–76, king of Aragon (1216–76). He captured the Balearic Islands and Valencia from the Muslims, thus beginning Aragonese expansion in the Mediterranean 2. 1394–1437, king of Scotland (1406–37), second son […]
[jeym-zee-uh n] /ˈdʒeɪm zi ən/ adjective 1. of, relating to, or characteristic of the novelist Henry or his writings. 2. of, relating to, or characteristic of William or his philosophy. noun 3. a student or follower of Henry or William . /ˈdʒeɪmzɪən/ adjective 1. relating to or characteristic of Henry James or his brother, William […]
- James II
noun 1. 1633–1701, king of England, Ireland, and Scotland 1685–88 (son of Charles I of England). noun 1. 1430–60, king of Scotland (1437–60), son of James I 2. 1633–1701, king of England, Ireland, and, as James VII, of Scotland (1685–88); son of Charles I. His pro-Catholic sympathies and arbitrary rule caused the Whigs and Tories […]
- James III
noun 1. . noun 1. 1451–88, king of Scotland (1460–88), son of James II