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[puh-noo r-ee-uh s, -nyoo r-] /pəˈnʊər i əs, -ˈnyʊər-/

extremely stingy; parsimonious; miserly.
extremely poor; destitute; indigent.
poorly or inadequately supplied; lacking in means or resources.
niggardly with money
lacking money or means
yielding little; scanty

1590s, from penury + -ous, or else from Medieval Latin penuriosus, from Latin penuria “penury.” Originally “poverty-stricken, in a state of penury;” meaning “stingy” is first attested 1630s. Related: Penuriously.


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