Adapter protein: A protein acts as a connecting molecule. An adapter protein is critical to intermolecular interactions and plays a role in the regulation of signal transduction initiated by engagement of surface receptors on all cell types. Some adapter proteins are expressed in all tissues, while the expression of other adapter proteins is restricted to specific tissues.
- ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotox.)
ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity): An immune response in which antibodies, by coating target cells, makes them vulnerable to attack by immune cells. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity is commonly (and blissfully) abbreviated ADCC.
- ADD (attention deficit disorder)
ADD (attention deficit disorder): ADHD is a common condition that affects children and adolescents, while ADD is more common in adults. ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder of children and is more common in boys than in girls. Children with ADHD generally have greater problems paying attention or concentrating. They can’t seem to […]
Addiction: An uncontrollable craving, seeking, and use of a substance such as alcohol or another drug. Dependence is such an issue with addiction that stopping is very difficult and causes severe physical and mental reactions.
- Addison anemia
Addison anemia: A blood disorder caused by a lack of vitamin B12. Patients who have this disorder do not produce the substance in the stomach that allows the body to absorb vitamin B12. This substance is called intrinsic factor (IF). Addison anemia, better known today as pernicious anemia (PA), is characterized by the presence in […]
- Addison disease
Long-term underfunction of the outer portion of the adrenal gland. In medical terms, chronic insufficiency of the adrenal cortex. This may be due to a number of different insults to the adrenal including physical trauma, hemorrhage, and tuberculosis of the adrenal, and destruction of the cells in the pituitary gland that secrete ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) […]