homogeneous, or diffuse; speckled; nucleolar; and peripheral or rim. While these patterns are not specific for any one illness, certain illnesses can more frequently be associated with one pattern or another. For example, the nucleolar pattern is more commonly seen in the disease scleroderma. The speckled pattern is seen in many conditions and in persons who do not have any autoimmune disease.
ANAs are present in approximately 5% of the normal population, usually in low titers (low levels). These persons have no disease. Titers of lower than 1:80 are less likely to be significant. Even higher titers are insignificant with aging over age 60 years. Ultimately, the ANA result must be interpreted in the specific context of the symptoms and other test results for the patient. It may or may not be significant in an individual.
- Antinuclear antibody test
Antinuclear antibody test: A test for unusual antibodies that are directed against structures within the nucleus of the cell. Antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) indicate the possible presence of autoimmunity. The fluorescent antinuclear antibody test (FANA) was designed by George Friou, M.D. in 1957. It is done on a blood sample. The antibodies in serum are exposed […]
Antioxidant: A substance that reduces damage due to oxygen, such as that caused by free radicals. Well-known antioxidants include enzymes and other substances, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, which are capable of counteracting the damaging effects of oxidation. Antioxidants are also commonly added to food products such as vegetable oils and […]
Antiparallel: A term applied to two molecules that are side by side but run in opposite directions. The two strands of DNA are antiparallel. The head of one strand is always laid against the tail of the other strand of DNA.
Antiparasitic: Effective in the treatment of parasites. For example, nitazoxanide (Alinis) is an antiparasitic medication used to treat diarrhea due to the intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia.
- Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome
An immune disorder characterized by the presence of abnormal antibodies in the blood associated with abnormal blood clotting, migraine headaches, recurrent pregnancy losses (repeat spontaneous abortions), and low blood platelet counts (thrombocytopenia). The abnormal antibodies are directed against phospholipids. (Phospholipids are fats that contains phosphorous). APLS can occur by itself (primary) or be caused by […]