Arbovirus: A class of viruses transmitted to humans by arthropods such as mosquitoes and ticks. The first two letters of the words arthropod’ and borne, make up the ‘arbo’ that now designates this group of viruses as arthropod-borne.
The name arbovirus was coined in part by Dr. William C. Reeves (1916-2004) to connote the class of viruses carried by insects and responsible for diseases like malaria, dengue fever, encephalitis and West Nile.
The arboviruses were originally called ‘arborviruses’ but the spelling was changed, dropping the second ‘r’ because of the potential of mis-identification with trees.
For more information about the arboviruses, see Arboviral encephalitis.
- Arch, aortic
Arch, aortic: The second section of the aorta following the ascending aorta. As it continues from the heart, it gives off the brachiocephalic trunk, and the left common carotid and subclavian arteries. The brachiocephalic trunk splits to form the right subclavian and the right common carotid arteries, which supply blood to the right arm and […]
- Arch, zygomatic
Arch, zygomatic: The bone that forms the prominence of the cheek. The zygomatic bone is also known as the zygoma, the zygomatic arch, malar bone, yoke bone. The word “zygomatic” comes from the Greek “zygon” meaning a yoke (as for oxen).
Archaea: A unique group of microorganisms that are called bacteria (Archaeobacteria) but are genetically and metabolically different from all other known bacteria. They appear to be living fossils, the survivors of an ancient group of organisms that bridged the gap in evolution between bacteria and multicellular organisms (eukaryotes).
Archaeogenetics: The study of the past using the techniques of molecular genetics. The application of genetics to archeology. The term “archaeogenetics” was coined in the 1990s by the archeologist Colin Renfrew from the Greek archaios (ancient) + genetics = archaeogenetics, literally, ancient genetics. In archaeogenetics, information on the DNA of different ethnic groups from around […]
Archaeology: The scientific study of the material remains of past peoples. In archaeology today, a range of biological techniques, including DNA analysis, enter into what has been termed bioarchaeology.