Aristolochia fangchi: A Chinese herb that is injurious to the kidney and is also associated with an increased risk of cancer of the urinary system.
Aristolochia can cause kidney failure requiring renal dialysis or a kidney transplant. The tumors reported have included urothelial carcinoma, carcinoma of the ureter, renal pelvis, or both and papillary bladder tumor.
Aristolochic acid, the harmful ingredient in Aristolochia fangchi, is also toxic to the kidney and carcinogenic (causes cancer) in laboratory animals.
- Aristolochic acid
Aristolochic acid: Aristolochic acids are a family of carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic compounds commonly found in the Aristolochiaceae family of plants. Aristolochic acid was previously contained in a number of botanical products sold as “traditional medicines” or as dietary supplements or weight-loss remedies. The use of products containing aristolochic acid were found to cause kidney […]
Aristotle: Aristotle of Stagira (384-322 B.C.), Greek philosopher and scientist. The son of a physician, Aristotle was a student of Plato but developed methods of inquiry different from those of his teacher. Unlike Plato, Aristotle felt that one could, and in fact must, trust one’s senses in the investigation of knowledge and reality. Aristotle’s writings […]
Arm: In popular usage, the appendage that extends from the shoulder to the hand. However, the medical definition refers to the upper extremity extending from the shoulder only to the portion of the elbow, excluding the forearm, which extends from the elbow to the wrist. The arm contains one bone: the humerus.
ARMD: Age-related macular degeneration (which may also be abbreviated as AMD).
- Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
Armed Forces Institute of Pathology: An agency of the US Department of Defense specializing in pathology consultation, education and research. The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) consults on many cases, including difficult, unusual, or rare tumors sent for an expert “second opinion.” The AFIP is located in Washington, DC.