Artemisinin: Artemisinin: Artemisia (Artemisia annua), also known as sweet Annie or annual wormwood, is an annual herb native to China, where it is known as qinghao. Artemisia is mentioned in the Chinese Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency Treatments of 340 AD for treatment of fevers. Artemisinin, pronounced ar-te-mis’-in-in with the accent on the mis, was first isolated in 1965 by Chinese military researchers.
Artemisinin has been found to act rapidly and potently against the malarial parasite, including some drug-resistant strains. Without significant side effects, it quickly reduces fever and lowers the blood levels of the parasite. Treatments containing an artemisinin derivative (artemisinin-combination therapies, ACTs) are now standard treatment worldwide for P. falciparum malaria.
To decrease the risk of resistance, artemisinin is taken as part of a “”cocktail.”” The cocktail of artemisinin and lumefantrine (Benflumetol) is marketed as Coartem and Riamet.
Artemisinin is also in studies for cancer treatment and for helminth parasites. The discovery of artemisinin is reportedly being considered for a Nobel Prize in Medicine.
- Artemsisia annua
Artemsisia annua: A Chinese herb (qinghaosu or sweet wormwood) from which is extracted the antimalarial agent artemisinin.
- Arterial blood gas (ABG)
Arterial blood gas (ABG): The sampling of the blood levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide within the arteries, as opposed to the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in venous blood. Typically the acidity, or pH, of the blood is measured simultaneously with the gas levels in ABG sampling.
- Arterial tension
Arterial tension: The pressure of the blood within an artery, the arterial pressure. Also called the intra-arterial pressure.
- Arteries, coronary
Arteries, coronary: The vessels that supply the heart muscle with blood rich in oxygen. They are called the coronary arteries because they encircle the heart in the manner of a crown. The word “coronary” comes from the Latin “corona” and Greek “koron” meaning crown. Like other arteries, the coronaries may be subject to arteriosclerosis (hardening […]
Arteriogram: An X-ray in which an injection of dye shows blood vessels.