Arteriohepatic dysplasia: Also known as Alagille syndrome, this ia a genetic disorder characterized by jaundice in the newborn period, liver disease with cholestasis, peripheral pulmonic stenosis and unusual face. Children with Alagille syndrome usually present with jaundice (yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes) in the newborn period. Cholestasis (stagnant flow of bile from the liver) then develops with puritis (itching), stools without the usual yellowing brown color, and enlargement of the liver and spleen. Peripheral pulmonic stenosis is a form of congenital heart disease (CHD). Other types of CHD also occur. The face has deep-set eyes, broad forehead, long nose with flat tip, prominence of the chin, and low-set or malformed ears. The outlook depends upon the degree of severity of the CHD and the liver disease (it can cause liver failure). The condition is an autosomal dominant trait meaning that the gene for it is on a non-sex chromosome (an autosome) and a single edition of the Alagille gene is sufficient to produce the disease. The gene has been discovered on chromosome 20 in band 20p12. The syndrome was first described by D. Alagille in the French medical literature in 1969.
Arteriole: A small branch of an artery that leads to a capillary. The oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyhemoglobin) makes the blood in arterioles (and arteries) look bright red.
Hardening and thickening of the walls of the arteries. Arteriosclerosis can occur because of fatty deposits on the inner lining of arteries (atherosclerosis), calcification of the wall of the arteries, or thickening of the muscular wall of the arteries from chronically elevated blood pressure (hypertension).
- Arteriosclerotic aneurysm
Arteriosclerotic aneurysm: A localized widening (aneurysm) of a vessel that occurs because the vessel wall is weakened by arteriosclerosis. An aneurysm is a localized widening (dilatation) of an artery, vein, or the heart. At the area of an aneurysm, there is typically a bulge and the wall is weakened and may rupture. The word “aneurysm” […]
- Arteriosclerotic retinopathy
Arteriosclerotic retinopathy: Retinal disease caused by arteriosclerosis. In this condition, the arterioles (small arteries) in the retina become partially blocked because of thickening of their walls. Using an ophthalmoscope, a doctor can see the thickened arterioles and other indications of diminished blood supply to the retina. (The characteristic features include narrowed tortuous arterioles with a […]
- Arteriovenous malformation
An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital disorder (one present at birth) of blood vessels in the brain, brainstem, or spinal cord that is characterized by a complex, tangled web of abnormal arteries and veins connected by one or more fistulas (abnormal communications). The AVM has no capillary bed of its own and the fistulas […]