A complication of severe chronic GERD (gastrointestinal reflux disease) involving changes in the cells of the tissue that line the bottom of the esophagus. These esophageal cells become irritated when the contents of the stomach back up (refluxes) and there is a small but definite increased risk of adenocarcinoma (cancer) of the esophagus. The diagnosis of Barrett’s esophagus rests upon seeing (through endoscopy) a pink esophageal lining (mucosa) that extends a short distance (usually less than 2.5 inches) up the esophagus from the gastroesophageal junction and finding intestinal type cells (goblet cells) on biopsy of the lining. Treatment is, in general, essentially the same as for GERD both medically (with acid-suppression drugs) and surgically (with fundoplication).
Named after Norman Rupert Barrett (1903-1979), an eminent thoracic surgeon born in Australia who studied medicine and practiced in Britain.
- Bartholin's glands
Bartholin’s glands: A pair of glands between the vulva and the vagina that produce lubrication in response to stimulation. With a second pair of nearby glands called the lesser vestibular glands, they act to aid in sexual intercourse. Also called the greater vestibular glands.
- Bartonella quintana
Bartonella quintana: Also called Rochalimaea quintana, this microorganism is an unusual rickettsia that can multiply within the gut of the body louse and then can be transmitted to humans. Transmission to people can occur by rubbing infected louse feces into abraded (scuffed) skin or into the conjunctivae (whites of the eyes). Bartonella quintana (B. quintana) […]
- Bartter syndrome
Bartter syndrome: A group of disorders that are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and are characterized by impaired salt reabsorption by the kidney with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemia (low blood potassium), alkalosis (an alkaline body pH), and hypercalciuria (high urine calcium).
- Basal cell carcinoma
Basal cell carcinoma: The most common type of skin cancer, which commonly presents as a sore that seems to get better and then recurs and may start to bleed. Basal cell carcinoma often occurs on the face and neck, where the skin is exposed to sunlight. These tumors are locally invasive and tend to burrow […]
- Basal cells
Basal cells: Small, round cells found in the lower part, or base, of the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin.