Bioidentical hormone therapy: Treatment with hormone medications that contain hormones that have the same chemical formula as those made naturally in the body, referred to by many as “bioidentical” hormones. Bioidentical hormones are created in a laboratory by altering compounds derived from naturally-occurring plant products and are typically taken in the form of creams or gels. There has been increasing interest in recent years in the use of this type of hormone therapy for perimenopausal women instead of conventional hormone therapy with synthetic hormones. Some bioidentical hormone preparations are U.S. FDA-approved and manufactured by drug companies, while others are made at special pharmacies called compounding pharmacies, which make the preparations on a case-by-case basis for each patient. These individual preparations are not regulated by the FDA, because compounded products are not standardized.
Advocates of bioidentical hormone therapy argue that the products, applied as creams or gels, are absorbed into the body in their active form without the need for “first pass” metabolism in the liver and that their use may avoid potentially dangerous side effects of synthetic hormones used in conventional hormone therapy. However, studies to establish the long-term safety and effectiveness of these products have not been carried out.
Bioinformatics: The sum of the computational approaches to analyze, manage, and store biological data. Bioinformatics involves the analysis of biological information using computers and statistical techniques, the science of developing and utilizing computer databases and algorithms to accelerate and enhance biological research. Bioinformatics is used in analyzing genomes, proteomes (protein sequences), three-dimensional modeling of biomolecules […]
- Biologic evolution
Biologic evolution: Biologic evolution was contrasted with cultural (social) evolution in 1968 by A.G. Motulsky who pointed out that biologic evolution is mediated by genes, shows a slow rate of change, employs random variation (mutations) and selection as agents of change, new variants are often harmful, these new variants are transmitted from parents to offspring, […]
- Biological response modifiers
Biological response modifiers: Substances that stimulate the body’s response to infection and disease. The body naturally produces small amounts of these substances. Scientists can produce some of them in the laboratory in large amounts for use in treating cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and other diseases. BMRs used in biological therapy include monoclonal antibodies, interferon, interleukin-2 (IL-2), […]
- Biological chemistry
Biological chemistry: Another name for biochemistry — the study of the chemistry of living cells, tissues, organs and organisms. One of the premier journals of biochemistry today is the JBC, the Journal of Biological Chemistry, which was founded in 1905.
- Biological therapy
Treatment to stimulate or restore the ability of the immune (defense) system to fight infection and disease. Biological therapy is thus any form of treatment that uses the body’s natural abilities that constitute the immune system to fight infection and disease or to protect the body from some of the side effects of treatment. Biological […]