Bovine genome: The genome of the cow (Bos taurus). The bovine genome is similar in size to the genomes of humans and other mammals, containing approximately 3 billion DNA base pairs. The breed of cattle selected for initial sequencing was Hereford, which is used in beef production. Sequencing began in December 2003 and a first draft was completed in October 2004. Sequencing of additional cattle breeds, including the Holstein, Angus, Jersey, Limousin, Norwegian Red and Brahman, allows tracking of the DNA differences between these breeds to assist in the discovery of traits for better meat and milk production and, as with all non-human genomes, to model human disease.
Having to do with cows and cattle, as in bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), bovine tuberculosis, and bovine growth hormone.
- Bovine tuberculosis
Bovine tuberculosis: Tuberculosis in cattle caused by infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium bovis which can be transmitted to other animals and to humans.
Bow-legs: A condition in which the legs curve out to leave a gap between the knees after the period of infancy has passed. It can be corrected with surgery or casting. Also called genu varum, tibia vara.
- Bowel disease, inflammatory
Bowel disease, inflammatory: A group of chronic intestinal diseases characterized by inflammation of the bowel — the large or small intestine. The most common types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease. Crohn disease favors the ileum (the lower part of the small intestine) but can occur anywhere along the intestinal […]
- Bowel sounds
Bowel sounds: The gurgling, rumbling, or growling noises from the abdomen caused by the muscular contractions of peristalsis, the process that moves the contents of the stomach and intestines downward. Bowel sounds are normal. Their absence can indicate intestinal paralysis (ileus). Bowel sounds may also be temporarily absent after abdominal surgery. Their increase may indicate […]