Broken hip: Fractured bone in the hip, a key health problem among the elderly, usually due to a fall or other kind of trauma involving direct impact to the hip bone which has been weakened by osteoporosis. The part of the hip most often broken is the greater trochanter of the femur.
In older people the leading risk factors for falls and, hence, for hip fractures include weakness; gait and balance disorders; functional, visual or cognitive impairment; and the side effects of drugs; together with the presence of hazards in the environment such as icy pavements or objects on the floor.
More than 300,000 people 65 years old or older are hospitalized yearly because of hip fractures in the US. About a quarter survive for less than a year because of the fracture or its complications and most of those who survive have substantial reductions in in their ability to walk and their ability to function in daily life.
Exercise programs and inspection and control of hazards in the living environment significantly reduce the incidence of falls. Osteoporosis can be treated (with a variety of medications, such as estrogen, calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates).
The use of impact-absorbing hip protectors for those at high risk for hip fractures appears to be dramatically helpful. Hip pads can eliminate up to 84% of hip fractures, according to a report in The New England Journal of Medicine. This has been called “a breakthrough in fracture prevention.”
Picture of the Anatomy of the Hip
Picture of the Location of Most Hip Fractures
Kannus P et al. Prevention of Hip Fracture in Elderly People with Use of a Hip Protector. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1506-13.
Rubinstein L. Hip Protectors — A Breakthrough in Fracture Prevention. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1562-63.
Bromism: A disease caused by chronic exposure to bromine or one of its compounds. Bromism is characterized by mental dullness, memory loss, slurred speech, tremors, ataxia and muscular weakness, a transitory state resembling paranoid schizophrenia, and a skin eruption (bromoderma). Once a common problem, bromism was generally due to chronic ingestion of proprietary bromide preparations. […]
Bromobenzylcyanide: A riot control agent or “tear gas.” See: Riot control agent poisoning.
Bromoderma: A skin eruption brought on by chronic exposure to bromine. Essentially an allergic reaction to bromine. There are diverse sources of bromine exposure including brominated vegetable oil, a commonly used emulsifier and flavor carrier in food products. Bromoderma is a form of bromism. See also: Bromism.
Permanent abnormal widening of the bronchi (air tubes that branch deep into the lungs). Bronchiectasis can cause recurrent lung infections, a disabling cough, shortness of breath, and coughing up blood.
Bronchiole: The tiny branch of air tubes within the lungs that is a continuation of the bronchus. The bronchioles connect to the alveoli (air sacs).