Care, nail: Care of the fingernails and toenails. Many nail problems are due to poor nail care. Recommendations for maintaining nail health include keeping nails clean and dry to keep bacteria and other infectious organisms from collecting under the nails, cutting nails straight across with only slight rounding at the tip, using a fine-textured file to keep nails shaped and free of snags, and avoiding nail-biting. It is a good idea to soak toenails that are thick and difficult to cut in warm salt water (1 tsp. salt to 1 pint of water) for 5 to 10 minutes, and apply a 10 percent urea cream (available at drugstores, without a prescription) before trimming. One should not ‘dig out’ ingrown toenails, especially if they are sore; instead, a physician should provide treatment. Nail changes, swelling, and pain can signal serious problems that should be reported to a physician.
Caries: Dental cavities in the two outer layers of a tooth (the enamel and the dentin). Small caries may not cause pain, and may not be noticed by the patient. Larger caries can collect food, and the inner pulp of the affected tooth can become irritated by bacterial toxins or by foods that are cold, […]
Carminative: An agent that prevents or relieves flatulence (gas in the gastrointestinal tract) and, in infants, may help in the treatment of colic. The origin of the word “carminative” is particularly curious. It was borrowed from the French carminatif (masc.), carminative (fem.). Virtually all English-language dictionaries state that the French took the word from the […]
- Carney complex
Carney complex: A multiple neoplasia syndrome with cardiac, endocrine, cutaneous, and neural tumors together with spotty pigmentation of the skin, particularly on the face, lips, and trunk, and mucosa. The Carney complex may simultaneously involve multiple endocrine glands such as the pituitary, adrenals, and testes. The cardiac tumors are myxomas which can arise in any […]
- Carotene, beta
Carotene, beta: An antioxidant, a substance that protects cells against oxidation damage which, it is thought, can lead to cancer. Beta carotene is converted, as needed, to vitamin A. Food sources of beta carotene include vegetables such as carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach and other leafy green vegetables; and fruit such as cantaloupes and apricots. Excessive […]
Carotenemia: An excessive blood level of carotene, which causes a temporary yellowing of the skin (pseudojaundice). Carotenemia is most commonly seen in infants fed too much mashed carrots and adults consuming high quantities of carrots, carrot juice, or beta carotene in supplement form.