Catecholamine: Pronounced cat·e·chol·amine. An amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine — examples include epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and dopamine — that act as hormones or neurotransmitters. There are a number of disorders involving catecholamines, including neuroblastoma, pheochromocytoma, chemodectina, the familial paraganglioma syndrome, dopamine-�-hydroxalase deficiency, and tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency
Neuroblastoma is the second most common solid tumor in childhood (after brain tumors). It usually produce catecholamines. The catecholamine metabolites vanillylmandelic acid and homovanillic acid can be measured quantitatively in the urine as a test for the disease.
Pheochromocytoma is a benign tumor derived from the adrenal medulla or sympathetic paraganglia. The tumor secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. These catecholamines cause attacks of hypertension, headache, nausea and vomiting, sweating, pallor and severe apprehension.
Chemodectoma is another benign tumor of the chemoreceptor system, the most common types being the carotid body tumor and the glomus jugulare tumor. Also known as nonchromaffin paraganglioma.
Familial paraganglioma syndrome is an unusual familial disease involving slow-growing benign tumors — paragangliomas, glomus tumors, or chemodectomas — predominantly in the head and neck region. The gene for the disease is on chromosome 11q23. The tumors may lead to disfiguring local swellings, cranial nerve injury, or involvement of the base of the skull and may cause dysphonia, aspiration, hearing loss, dysphagia, tinnitus, pain, persistent cough, and shoulder weakness (due to tumor encroachment on cranial nerves). All individuals with hereditary paragangliomas inherit the disease gene from their father. This is consistent with genomic imprinting: the maternally derived gene is inactivated during oogenesis and can be reactivated only during spermatogenesis.
Dopamine-�-hydroxalase deficiency is a congenital form of severe orthostatic hypotension caused by complete absence of the enzyme dopamine-�-hydroxalase. During childhood impaired exercise tolerance, fatigue, and episodes of syncope (fainting) are common. Symptoms from orthostatic hypotension become worse in late adolescence and in early adulthood.
Tetrahydrobiopterin deficiency is a genetic defect of enzymes required for the synthesis (production) of catecholamines, resulting in a deficiency in neurotransmitters. Symptoms begin between two and eight months of age, and include unstable body temperature, swallowing difficulties, hypersalivation, pinpoint pupils, ptosis of the eyelids, decreased mobility, drowsiness, and irritability.
- Category five hurricane
Category five hurricane: A hurricane with winds greater than 155 mph (135 kt or 249 km/hr). Storm surge generally greater than 18 ft above normal. Complete roof failure on many residences and industrial buildings. Some complete building failures with small utility buildings blown over or away. All shrubs, trees, and signs blown down. Complete destruction […]
- Category four hurricane
Category four hurricane: A hurricane with winds 131-155 mph (114-135 kt or 210-249 km/hr). Storm surge generally 13-18 ft above normal. More extensive curtainwall failures with some complete roof structure failures on small residences. Shrubs, trees, and all signs are blown down. Complete destruction of mobile homes. Extensive damage to doors and windows. Low-lying escape […]
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Category one hurricane: A hurricane with winds 74-95 mph (64-82 kt or 119-153 km/hr). Storm surge generally 4-5 ft above normal. No real damage to building structures. Damage primarily to unanchored mobile homes, shrubbery, and trees. Some damage to poorly constructed signs. Also, some coastal road flooding and minor pier damage. Hurricanes are rated on […]
- Category three hurricane
Category three hurricane: A hurricane with winds 111-130 mph (96-113 kt or 178-209 km/hr). Storm surge generally 9-12 ft above normal. Some structural damage to small residences and utility buildings with a minor amount of curtainwall failures. Damage to shrubbery and trees with foliage blown off trees and large trees blown down. Mobile homes and […]
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Category two hurricane: A hurricane with winds 96-110 mph (83-95 kt or 154-177 km/hr). Storm surge generally 6-8 feet above normal. Some roofing material, door, and window damage of buildings. Considerable damage to shrubbery and trees with some trees blown down. Considerable damage to mobile homes, poorly constructed signs, and piers. Coastal and low-lying escape […]