Cell cycle: The sequence of events within the cell between mitotic (cell) divisions. The cell cycle is conventionally divided into five phases: G0 (the gap); G1, (the first gap); S (the synthesis phase, during which the DNA is synthesized and replicated); G2 (the second gap); and M (mitosis). Cells that are not destined to divide again are considered to be in the G0 phase. The transition from G0 to G1 is thought to commit the cell to completing the cell cycle by dividing.
- Cell fusion
Cell fusion: The melding of two or more cells into one cell called a heterokaryon. A heterokaryon may reproduce itself for at least several generations. Cell fusion provides a method for assigning specific genes to specific chromosomes. When an undifferentiated stem cell fuses with a mature differentiated cell, the resultant cell can retain the mature […]
- Cell lineage
Cell lineage: A genealogic pedigree of cells related through mitotic division.
- Cell sorter, fluorescence-activated
Cell sorter, fluorescence-activated: A flow cytometer (a scientific instrument used to measure the characteristics of individual cells) that is modified for the purpose of separating (sorting) cells based on the amount of light (fluorescence) emitted by each cell. The abbreviation for fluorescence-activated cell sorter is FACS (pronounced like “fax”).
- Cell therapy
Cell therapy: Treatment with cells. A technology that relies on replacing diseased or dysfunctional cells with healthy, functioning ones. Whole blood transfusions, packed red cell transfusions, platelet transfusions, bone marrow transplants, and organ transplants are all forms of cell therapy. Cell therapy may be applicable to some types of cancer, neurological diseases such as Parkinson […]
- Cell, alpha (pancreatic)
Cell, alpha (pancreatic): A type of cell in the pancreas (the organ of the digestive system located behind the stomach). Within the pancreas, the alpha cells are located in areas called the islets of Langerhans. Alpha cells make and release glucagon which raises the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.