Cellular changes in the cells lining the cervix of the uterus. Cervical dysplasia involves a sequence of cellular changes from mild to severe that are not yet cancerous but constitute the prelude to cervical cancer.
The diagnosis of cervical dysplasia is made from the PAP smear. As a rule, cervical dysplasia is found in no more than 5% of PAP smears. The incidence peaks in women 25 to 35 years of age. Risk factors include multiple sexual partners, the early onset of sexual activity (before age 18), early childbearing (before age 16) and a history of an STD (example chlamydia, genital warts gonorrhea, genital herpes, and HIV). In a woman with HIV, the speed of changes in cervical dysplasia is accelerated.
The treatment depends on the degree of dysplasia. It may include cryotherapy (freezing the area) and conization (removal of a cone of tissue from the cervix). The aim is to prevent full-fledged cervical cancer.
- Cervical dystocia
Cervical dystocia: Difficult labor and delivery caused by mechanical obstruction at the cervix. Dystocia comes from the Greek “dys” meaning “difficult, painful, disordered, abnormal” + “tokos” meaning “birth.”
- Cervical vertebra, first
Cervical vertebra, first: The first cervical (neck) vertebra is called the atlas. It supports the head. The atlas bone is named for the Greek god Atlas who was condemned to support the earth and its heavens on his shoulders. (Because the god Atlas often adorned maps, a compilation of maps came to be known as […]
- Cervical vertebra, second
Cervical vertebra, second: The second cervical vertebra is called the axis. It is so-named because the uppermost cervical vertebra (called the atlas) rotates about the odontoid process of the second cervical vertebra. The joint between the axis and atlas is a pivot type of joint. It allows the head turn. The Latin word “axis” means […]
Cervicectomy: Surgical removal of the cervix, the lower portion of the uterus that protrudes into the vagina. Cervicectomy is also called trachelectomy. Cervicectomy is done in younger women with early cancer of the cervix (with a tumor no larger than 2-3 centimeters). In this surgery, the cervix and the upper part of the vagina are […]
- Cervical vertebrae
Cervical vertebrae: The cervical (neck) vertebrae are the upper 7 vertebrae in the spinal column (the vertebral column). They are designated C1 through C7 from the top down. C1 is called the atlas. It supports the head and is named for the Greek god Atlas who was condemned to support the earth and its heavens […]