CF: 1. Cystic fibrosis, one of the most frequent and serious genetic diseases, CF affects the exocrine glands and is characterized by the production of abnormal secretions, leading to mucous build-up.
This accumulation of mucus can impair the pancreas and, secondarily, the intestine. Mucous build-up in lungs tends progressively to impair respiration. Without treatment, CF results in death for 95% of affected children before age 5. However, with diligent medical care patients with CF are surviving even beyond middle age.
Early diagnosis of CF is of great importance. Early and continuing treatment of CF is essential for long-term survival. However, as more people with CF survive childhood, new problems are emerging. For example, 68% of 75 adult women with CF reported leakage of urine within the past year. Coughing, sneezing, laughing and airway clearance provoked the leakage, which was worse when their chest disease was most severe.
CF is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner and affects both boys and girls. One in 400 white couples is at risk for having children with CF and their risk with each pregnancy is 1 in 4, so (multiplying 1 in 400 times 1 in 4) the overall risk that their child will have CF is 1 in 1600. Note that once a couple has had a CF child, the risk that each of their subsequent children will have CF drops to 1 in 4 (25%).
The treatment of CF includes physical therapy to loosen the mucus in the lungs, pancreatic enzymes, and medications to fight dangerous infections of the lungs.
CF is caused by mutations in a gene called CFTR (for the cystic fibrosis conductance regulator), which is located on chromosome 7.
2. Citrovorum factor.
Cholecyst: The gallbladder. The word cholecyst is not much used today but it figures into a number of other terms to do with the gallbladder Cholecystectomy is removal of the gallbladder. Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder. Cholecystogram is an x-ray of the gallbladder. Cholecyst, literally, means, bilebladder. It comes from chol, referring to bile […]
Surgical removal of the gallbladder. This procedure may be done by laparoscopy or by open surgery.
Cholecystitis: Inflammation of the gallbladder. Cholecystitis is a complication of gallstones, and it is frequently associated with infection in the gallbladder. Risk factors for cholecystitis include age, obesity, female gender, multiple pregnancies, use of birth control pills, and heredity. The most common symptom is pain in the upper abdomen, although some patients have no symptoms. […]
Cholecystokinin: Abbreviated CCK. A polypeptide hormone that stimulates the contraction of the gallbladder with release of bile and the secretion of pancreatic enzymes into the small intestine. CCK is secreted by cells lining the upper intestine and by the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic cholecystokinin is a neurotransmitter. Called also pancreozymin.
Cholelithiasis: 1. The presence of stones in the gallbladder. 2. The process of formation of such stones. From the Greek roots chole, bile + lithos, stone.