A genetic disease of nerves that is characterized by progressively debilitating weakness, particularly of the limbs. The foremost feature is marked wasting of the extremities, particularly in the calves, resulting in ‘stork legs.’ The disease usually weakens the legs before it weakens the arms. Pes cavus (deformity of the foot) is often the first sign of the disease. The disease is one of the most common genetic diseases, and it is the most common genetic disorder of peripheral nerves. The disease can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, an autosomal recessive trait, or an X-linked trait. There are also sporadic cases in which there is no family history due to a new dominant mutation. Abbreviated CMT. Also known as peroneal muscular atrophy and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy.
- Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome
Charcot-Wilbrand syndrome: Loss of dreaming after a stroke. In more technical terms the syndrome is characterized by visual agnosia and the inability to revisualise images. Named for the French founder of modern neurology Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) and the German neuro-ophthalmologist Hermann Wilbrand.
- Chargaff rule
Chargaff rule: The rule that in DNA there is always equality in quantity between the bases A and T and between the bases G and C. (A is adenine, T is thymine, G is guanine, and C is cytosine.) Named for the great Austrian-American biochemist Erwin Chargaff (1905-2002) at Columbia University who discovered this rule. […]
- CHARGE association
CHARGE association: A constellation of congenital malformations (birth defects). The name of the condition is an acronym of some of the most frequent features: C = Coloboma (cleft) of the eye (80% of cases) and Cranial nerve abnormalities, H = Heart malformation, A = Choanal Atresia (blockage of the nasal passageways) (58% of cases), R […]
- Charley horse
Charley horse: Slang for a cramp in a muscle in the leg, usually caused by a strain or injury. A charley horse can last anywhere from a few seconds to over a quarter of an hour. It is not uncommon for one to recur before it finally resolves.
- Chart, Snellen's
Chart, Snellen’s: The familiar eye chart used to measure how well you see at various distances. Snellen’s chart is imprinted with block letters that line-by-line decrease in size, corresponding to the distance at which that line of letters is normally visible. The letters on Snellen’s chart are, not surprisingly, called Snellen’s test type. Each block […]