Chromosome, X: The sex chromosome found twice in normal females and once, along with a Y chromosome, in normal males. The complete chromosome complement (consisting of 46 chromosomes, including the 2 sex chromosomes) is thus conventionally written as 46,XX for chromosomally normal females and 46,XY for chromosomally normal males. The X chromosome not only determines gender but also carries the genetic code for many essential functions in both males and females.
- Chromosome, Y
Chromosome, Y: The sex chromosome found in normal males, together with an X chromosome. Once thought to be a genetic wasteland, the Y chromosome is now known to contain at least 20 genes. Some of these genes are unique to the Y chromosome, including the male-determining gene and male fitness genes that are active only […]
Chromosomes: The microscopically visible carriers of the genetic material. They are composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and proteins and, under a microscope, look like little rods. Humans normally have 46 chromosomes — 44 autosomes (nonsex chromosomes) plus XX sex chromosomes in the case of the female and XY sex chromosomes in the case of the […]
- Chromosomes in multiple miscarriages
Chromosomes in multiple miscarriages: Chromosome abnormalities (such as deletions, additions, or translocations) that are responsible for causing miscarriages. A couple that has had more than one miscarriage has about a 5 percent chance that one member of the couple is carrying an irregular chromosome that is responsible for the miscarriages.
Chronic: In medicine, lasting a long time. A chronic condition is one that lasts 3 months or more. Chronic diseases are in contrast to those that are acute (abrupt, sharp, and brief) or subacute (within the interval between acute and chronic).
- Chronic arthritis, systemic-onset juvenile
Chronic arthritis, systemic-onset juvenile: See: Arthritis, systemic-onset juvenile rheumatoid.