Clonote: The first cell produced by the combination of a nucleus and an enucleated ovum that launches the process of somatic-cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). As opposed to the zygote, the first cell resulting from fertilization.
The term “clonote” was coined to connote the fundamental difference between in vitro fertilization (IVF) and SCNT. IVF (and the natural reproductive process) can lead to the production of a zygote and, in time, a human being whereas SCNT cannot.
To our knowledge, the first appearance of the term “clonote” in print was in 2004 in an invited editorial by Paul R. McHugh (Zygote and “Clonote” – The Ethical Use of Embryonic Stem Cells. New England J Med 351:209-211). The term was created by merging clon(e) and (zyg)ote.
Clostridium: A group of anaerobic bacteria (bacteria that thrive in the absence of oxygen). There are 100+ species of Clostridium. They include, for examples, Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens (also called Clostridium welchii), and Clostridium botulinum. Clostridium difficile is one of the most common causes of infection of the large bowel (the colon) in the US […]
- Clostridium botulinum
Clostridium botulinum: A group of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria commonly found in the soil that grow best in anaerobic (in the absence of oxygen) conditions. The bacteria form heat-resistant spores which allow them to survive in a dormant state until exposed to conditions that can support their growth. Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum toxin, a highly potent […]
- Clostridium difficile
Clostridium difficile: A bacterium that is one of the most common causes of infection of the colon in the US. Patients taking antibiotics are at risk of becoming infected with C. difficile as antibiotics can disrupt the normal bacteria of the bowel, allowing C. difficile to become established in the colon. In some people, a […]
- Clostridium perfringens
Clostridium perfringens: A bacterium that is the most common cause of gas gangrene, a lethal infection of soft tissue, especially muscle. C. perfringens bacteria are toxin- and gas-producing bacteria. Before the introduction of antibiotics, a significant percentage of battlefield injuries were complicated by gas gangrene. C. perfringens also causes food poisoning and a fulminant form […]
- Clot-dissolving medication
Clot-dissolving medication: An agent such as plasminogen-activator (t-PA) or streptokinase that is effective in dissolving clots and reopening arteries. For example, clot-dissolving medications may be used in the treatment of heart attacks, to reestablish blood flow to the heart muscle (myocardium). Also known as thrombolytic agents.