Inability of the heart to keep up with the demands on it, with failure of the heart to pump blood with normal efficiency. When this occurs, the heart is unable to provide adequate blood flow to other organs, such as the brain, liver, and kidneys. Abbreviated CHF. CHF may be due to failure of the right or left ventricle, or both. The symptoms can include shortness of breath (dyspnea), asthma due to the heart (cardiac asthma), pooling of blood (stasis) in the general body (systemic) circulation or in the liver’s (portal) circulation, swelling (edema), blueness or duskiness (cyanosis), and enlargement (hypertrophy) of the heart. The many causes of CHF include coronary artery disease leading to heart attacks and heart muscle (myocardium) weakness; primary heart muscle weakness from viral infections or toxins, such as prolonged alcohol exposure; heart valve disease causing heart muscle weakness due to too much leaking of blood or causing heart muscle stiffness from a blocked valve; hyperthyroidism; and high blood pressure.
Conization: Surgery to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix and cervical canal. Conization may be used to diagnose or treat a cervical condition. Also known as cone biopsy.
- Conjoined twin
Conjoined twin: Identical (monozygotic) twins that did not separate fully from one another but are still partially united. Due to the incomplete division of one fertilized ovum. Conjoined twins are popularly known as Siamese twins after Chang and Eng (1811-1874), the celebrated conjoined Chinese twins born in Siam (Thailand). Conjoin comes via French from the […]
- Conjugated linoleic acid
Conjugated linoleic acid: (CLA) A supplement that has been promoted as an aid to weight loss and muscle building and as a deterrent to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. CLA is an unsaturated fatty acid in the milk and meat of cows, sheep and goats. CLA occurs in about 20 different chemical configurations called isomers, […]
Conjunctiva: A thin, clear, moist membrane that coats the inner surfaces of the eyelids (palpebral conjunctiva) and the outer surface of the eye (ocular, or bulbar, conjunctiva). Inflammation of the conjunctiva is called conjunctivitis (pinkeye).
Conjunctival: Pertaining to the conjunctiva, the clear moist membrane that covers the inner surfaces of the eyelids and the front of eyeball.