Constrictive pericarditis: Scarring of the pericardial sac. This limits the ability of the heart to function because it cannot expand enough to collect blood and pump it to the lungs and then back to the body. Bleeding into the pericardium from trauma or from a heart operation is the most common cause of constrictive pericarditis, but tumors or infections can also be the cause. The constriction occurs slowly over time and causes shortness of breath on exertion and a decreased ability to exercise. Swelling in the legs and the abdomen may exist because it is difficult for blood to return to the heart, and fluid leaks out into the tissues. Pericardotomy, an operation to split open the pericardium to free up the constriction around the heart, may be required to improve function.
CpG: In genetics, a site where cytosine (C) lies next to guanine (G) in the DNA sequence. (The p indicates that C and G are connected by a phosphodiester bond.) Methylation of DNA occurs at any CpG site.
- CpG island
CpG island: In molecular genetics, a short region of DNA rich in CpG sites, often located near the promoters of genes. Methylation of the CpG sites influences the activity of nearby genes and is critical to the regulation of gene expression.
- CPM machine
CPM machine: A machine used to help rehabilitate a limb (an arm or leg). The continuous passive motion (CPM) machine is attached to, for example, a knee that has had surgery. The CPM machine then constantly moves the knee through a range of motion for a period of time while the patient relaxes.
Crabs: Slang for pubic lice, parasitic insects that can infest in the genital area of humans. Pubic lice are usually spread through sexual contact. Rarely, infestation can be spread through contact with an infested person’s bed linens, towels, or clothes. The key symptom of pubic lice is itching in the genital area. Lice eggs (nits) […]
CRAC1: Colorectal adenoma and carcinoma 1. Also called hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome. See: Hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome.