Inflammation and swelling of the cartilage of the chest wall, usually involving the cartilage that surrounds the breastbone (sternum) but sometimes including the adjacent tip of a rib. Costochondritis causes local pain and tenderness of the chest around the sternum. Treatment options include anti-inflammatory medications and, in severe cases, corticosteroid injections. Also known as Tietze syndrome.
Cotinine: The major metabolite (breakdown product) of nicotine. Exposure to nicotine can be measured by analyzing the cotinine level in the blood, saliva, or urine. Since nicotine is highly specific to tobacco smoke, serum cotinine levels track exposure to tobacco smoke and its toxic constituents. Cotinine assays provide an objective quantitative measure that is more […]
- Cotton rat
Cotton rat: A rodent capable of carrying the types of hantavirus that cause HPS (hantavirus pulmonary syndrome) in the US. The cotton rate is found in the southeastern US and Central and South America. Its head and body measure about 5 to 7 inches with another 3 to 4 inches for the tail. The hair […]
Cough: A rapid expulsion of air from the lungs, typically in order to clear the lung airways of fluids, mucus, or other material. Also known as tussis.
- Coughing syncope
Coughing syncope: The temporary loss of consciousness upon coughing. Syncope is the temporary loss of consciousness or, in plain English, fainting. The situations that trigger this reaction are diverse and include having blood drawn, straining while urinating (micturition syncope) or defecating, coughing or swallowing. The reaction also can be due to the emotional stress of […]
- Cough suppressant
Cough suppressant: A drug used to control coughing, particularly with a dry, nagging, unproductive cough.