Cytogenetic map: A genetic term referring to the visual appearance of a chromosome when stained and examined under a microscope. Particularly important are visually distinct regions, called light and dark bands, which give each of the chromosomes a unique appearance. This feature allows a person’s chromosomes to be studied in a clinical test known as a karyotype, which allows scientists to look for chromosomal alterations.
Cytogenetics: The study of chromosomes, which are the visible carriers of the hereditary material. Cytogenetics is a fusion science, joining cytology (the study of cells) with genetics (the study of inherited variation).
- Cytogenetics, clinical
Cytogenetics, clinical: The application of chromosome analysis to clinical medicine. For example, clinical cytogenetic testing is done to look for an extra chromosome 21 in a child who is suspected of having Down syndrome.
Cytokine: A small protein released by cells that has a specific effect on the interactions between cells, on communications between cells or on the behavior of cells. The cytokines includes the interleukins, lymphokines and cell signal molecules, such as tumor necrosis factor and the interferons, which trigger inflammation and respond to infections.
Cytokinesis: 1. During cell division, the process that partitions the cellular contents including the chromosomes, cytoplasm, and organelles into the two daughter cells. Cytokinesis occurs just after the segregation of the duplicated genome. 2. In a more limited sense, the partition of a cell’s cytoplasm into daughter cells. See also: Karyokinesis; Mitosis.
Cytology: The medical and scientific study of cells. Cytology refers to a branch of pathology, the medical specialty that deals with making diagnoses of diseases and conditions through the examination of tissue samples from the body. Cytologic examinations may be performed on body fluids (examples are blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid) or on material that […]