Diarrhea, traveler’s: Diarrhea illness associated with travel to a foreign country. Among the causes of traveler’s diarrhea are viruses and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). E.coli is a particular type of bacteria that normally lives in the intestines of people (and animals). Most strains of E coli are quite harmless. They are simply part of the normal intestinal flora. However, there are some kinds of E. coli that are capable of causing disease. Not all E. coli bacteria that cause disease are alike. There are multiple classes of “bad” E.coli. The enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC) constitute a class of “bad” E.coli. They produce toxins (poisons). The ETEC toxins do not injure or kill the cells lining the intestines. They alter the metabolism of these cells, disturbing the regulation of fluid and electrolytes (like sodium and potassium) absorbed from the intestines. Instead of absorbing fluid, the intestinal cells permit fluid to be secreted into the intestine. This causes diarrhea. ETEC causes diarrhea in infants and traveler’s diarrhea. ETEC is a cause of food poisoning. The cornerstone of ETEC therapy is replacement of fluids and electrolytes (sodium and other ions) lost in the diarrhea. The ideal approach to ETEC is to avoid exposure to it.
Diastole: The time period when the heart is in a state of relaxation and dilatation (expansion). The final letter in “diastole” is pronounced as a long “e” as in “lee.” The adjective for diastole is diastolic. The diastolic pressure is specifically the minimum arterial pressure during relaxation and dilatation of the ventricles of the heart. […]
Diastolic: Referring to the time when the heart is in a period of relaxation and dilatation (expansion). The noun for diastolic is diastole. (The final letter in “diastole” is pronounced as a long “e” as in “lee.”) The diastolic pressure is specifically the minimum arterial pressure during relaxation and dilatation of the ventricles of the […]
- Diastrophic dysplasia
Diastrophic dysplasia: An inherited skeletal disorder involving significantly short stature (dwarfism). Characteristic features at birth include short birth length with short limbs (short-limbed dwarfism), “hitchhiker thumb”, and clubfeet. Palatal malformations such as cleft palate or submucous cleft of the palate are present in 50% of patients. There is swelling of the ears in the first […]
Diathesis: An elegant term for a predisposition or tendency. For example, hemorrhagic diathesis means a tendency to bleed.
Diathermy: The use of heat to destroy abnormal cells. Also called cauterization or electrodiathermy.