Dysarthria: Speech that is characteristically slurred, slow, and difficult to understand. A person with dysarthria may also have problems controlling the pitch, loudness, rhythm, and voice qualities of his or her speech. Dysarthria is caused by paralysis, weakness, or inability to coordinate the muscles of the mouth. Dysarthria can occur as a developmental disability. It may be a sign of a neuromuscular disorder such as cerebral palsy or Parkinson’s disease. It may also be caused by a stroke, brain injury, or brain tumor. Treatment of dysarthria includes intensive speech therapy with a focus on oral-motor skill development.
Dyscalculia: A specific developmental disability that affects a person’s ability to conceptualize and perform mathematics. Mild cases can often be compensated for with use of a calculator, but those with severe dyscalculia need special education services.
Dyscrasia: Any disease condition, especially in hematology, as in “blood dyscrasias.” The term “dyscrasia” was borrowed from the Greek meaning “a bad mixture” referring to the ancient belief that an imbalance between the four humors – blood, phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile- which caused disease.
Dysentery: Inflammation of the intestine, with pain, diarrhea, bloody stools, and often a fever above 38.3’C (101’F). The causes of dysentery include bacteria (such as Shigella), protozoa (such as amebae), parasitic worms (such as schistosomes), and viruses. Dysentery can be fatal because it can cause severe dehydration. Treatment includes rapid rehydration, sometimes via IV, and […]
- Dysentery, amebic
Dysentery, amebic: Inflammation of the intestine due to infection with the ameba Entamoeba histolytica. Amebic dysentery can be accompanied by amebic infection of the liver and other organs.
Dysfunction: Difficult function or abnormal function. There is, for example: Constitutional hepatic dysfunction, (familial nonhemolytic jaundice), Dental dysfunction (abnormal functioning of dental structures), Minimal brain dysfunction (attention deficit disorder), Placental dysfunction (dysmature placenta), Psychosexual dysfunction, and Sexual dysfunction (a disturbance of sexual functioning). Erectile dysfunction is a consistent inability to sustain an erection sufficient for […]