Echinococcus: A tiny parasitic tapeworm. The larval stage of this tapeworm can cause human disease.
There are three forms of Echinococcus that affect humans — E. (Echinococcus) granulosus, E. multilocularis, and E. vogeli — and each has a different geographic distribution and tends to cause a different pattern of disease.
E. granulosus is common in areas where livestock is raised in association with dogs — in Australia and New Zealand, Argentina and Chile, Africa, E. Europe, the Middle East, and the Mediterranean region, especially Lebanon and Greece — and causes unilocular cysts.
E. multilocularis is found in Alpine, sub-Arctic, or Arctic regions — including Canada, the United States, and central and northern Europe and Asia — and causes multilocular lung disease known as alveolar hydatid disease (AHD).
Echocardiography: Echocardiography is a diagnostic test which uses ultrasound waves to make images of the heart chambers, valves and surrounding structures. It can measure cardiac output and is a sensitive test for fluid around the heart (pericardial effusion). It can also be used to detect abnormal anatomy or infections of the heart valves.
- Echocardiography, stress
Echocardiography, stress: A supplement to the routine exercise cardiac stress test. During stress echocardiography, the sound waves of ultrasound are used to produce images of the heart at rest and at the peak of exercise. In a heart with normal blood supply, all segments of the left ventricle (the major pumping chamber of the heart) […]
- Echocardiography, transesophageal
Echocardiography, transesophageal: A diagnostic test which is done through the esophagus and which employs ultrasound waves to make images of the heart chambers, valves and surrounding structures. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) may be used, for example, in the treatment of children having heart surgery. TEE has unusually accurate imaging capabilities that permit the identification of previously […]
Echolalia: The involuntary parrotlike repetition (echoing) of a word or phrase just spoken by another person. Echolalia is a feature of schizophrenia (especially the catatonic form), Tourette syndrome, and some other disorders. From echo + the Greek lalia, a form of speech.
Echopraxia: The involuntary imitation of the movements of another person. Echopraxia is a feature of schizophrenia (especially the catatonic form), Tourette syndrome, and some other neurologic diseases. From echo + the Greek praxia meaning action.