Examination of the inside of the body by using a lighted, flexible instrument called an endoscope. In general, an endoscope is introduced into the body through a natural opening such as the mouth or anus. Although endoscopy can include examination of other organs, the most common endoscopic procedures evaluate the esophagus, stomach, and portions of the intestine.
- Endoscopy, upper
A procedure that enables the examiner (usually a gastroenterologist) to examine the esophagus, the stomach, and the first portion of small bowel (duodenum) by using a thin, flexible tube that can be looked through or seen through on a TV monitor. Also known as esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD).
Endostatin: A fragment of a protein, collagen 18, that is found in all blood vessels. Endostatin is normally secreted by blood vessels in response to tumors. Endostatin appears to halt the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis), which is necessary to tumor development.
- Endothelial progenitor cell
Endothelial progenitor cell: A primitive cell made in the bone marrow that can enter the bloodstream and go to areas of blood vessel injury to help repair the damage. The number of endothelial progenitor cells in the blood is a risk factor for vascular disease. Depletion or senescence of endothelial progenitor cells may contribute to […]
Endothelium: A layer of flat cells lining the closed internal spaces of the body such as the inside of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels (that convey the lymph, a milky fluid) and the heart. By contrast, the outside layer of cells that covers all the free, open surfaces of the body including the skin, and […]
- Endotracheal tube
Endotracheal tube: A flexible plastic tube that is put in the mouth and then down into the trachea (airway). A physician inserts an endotracheal tube under direct vision, with the help of a laryngoscope, in a procedure called endotracheal intubation. The purpose of using an endotracheal tube is to ventilate the lungs.