Gene family: A group of genes that are related in structure and often in function. The genes in a gene family are descended from an ancestral gene. For example, the hemoglobin genes belong to one gene family that was created by gene duplication and divergence.
- Gene mapping
Gene mapping: The charting of the positions of genes on a DNA molecule or chromosome and the distance, in linkage units or physical units, between genes.
- Gene markers
Gene markers: Detectable genetic traits or distinctive segments of DNA that serve as landmarks for a target gene. Markers are on the same chromosome as the target gene. They must be near enough to the target gene to be genetically linked to it: to be inherited usually together with that gene, and so serve as […]
- Gene pool
Gene pool: The sum total of genes, with all their variations, possessed by a particular species at a particular time.
- Gene product
Gene product: The RNA or protein that results from the expression of a gene. The amount of gene product is a measure of the degree of gene activity.
- Gene silencing
Gene silencing: A mechanism by which cells shut down large sections of chromosomal DNA. Gene silencing is done by incorporating the DNA to be silenced into a form of DNA called heterochromatin that is already silent. The process of gene silencing is important for the differentiation of many different types of cells.