Genetics: The scientific study of heredity. Genetics pertains to humans and all other organisms. So, for example, there is human genetics, mouse genetics, fruit fly genetics, etc.
Human genetics today comprises a number of overlapping fields, including:
Classical or formal genetics — the study of the transmission of single genes within families and the analysis of more complex types of inheritance.
Clinical genetics — the diagnosis, prognosis and, in some cases, the treatment of genetic diseases.
Genetic counseling — an important area within clinical genetics involving the diagnosis, risk assessment, and interpersonal communication.
(Cancer genetics — the study of genetic factors in inherited and sporadic cancer.
Cytogenetics — the study of chromosomes in health and disease.
Biochemical genetics — the biochemistry of nucleic acids and proteins including enzymes.
Pharmacogenetics — how genes govern the absorption, metabolism and disposal of drugs and untoward reactions to them.
Molecular genetics — the molecular study of genetics including particularly DNA and RNA.
Immunogenetics — the genetics of the immune system including blood groups, HLA, and the immunoglobulins.
Behavioral genetics — the study of genetic factors in behavior in health and disease including mental retardation and mental illness.
Population genetics — the study of genes within populations including gene frequencies, the gene pool, and evolution.
Reproductive genetics — the genetics of reproduction including genes and chromosomes in germ cells and the early embryo.
Developmental genetics — the genetics of normal and abnormal development including congenital malformations (birth defects). (Cancer genetics- The study of the genetic factors in inherited and sporadic cancer)
Ecogenetics — the interaction of genetics with the environment.
Forensic genetics — the application of genetic knowledge, including DNA, to legal matters.
- Genetics, transplantation
Genetics, transplantation: The field of biology and medicine relating to the genes that govern the acceptance or rejection of a transplant. The most important genes deciding the fate of a transplanted cell, tissue, or organ belong to what is termed the MHC (the major histocompatibility complex). The MHC was first identified through tumor transplantation studies […]
- Genital herpes
Genital herpes: An infection by human herpes virus that is transmitted through intimate contact with the moist mucous linings of the genitals. This contact can involve the mouth, the vagina, or the genital skin. Following infection, the virus travels to nerve roots near the spinal cord and settles there permanently. When an infected person has […]
Genital: Pertaining to the external and/or internal organs of reproduction.
- Genital wart
Genital wart: A wart in the moist skin of the genitals or around the anus. Genital warts are due to a human papillomavirus (HPV). The HPVs, including those that cause genital warts, are transmitted through sexual contact. HPV can also be transmitted from mother to baby during childbirth. Most people infected with HPV have no […]
Genitalia: The male or female reproductive organs. The genitalia include internal and external structures. The female internal genitalia are the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, and vagina. The female external genitalia are the labia minora and majora (the vulva) and the clitoris. The male internal genitalia are the testes, epididymis, and vas deferens. The male […]