Genome Research Institute, National Human: One of the newest of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), NHGRI’s mission in formal terms is to “support the NIH component of the Human Genome Project, a worldwide research effort designed to analyze the structure of human DNA and determine the location of the a estimated 100,000 human genes. The NHGRI Intramural Research Program develops and implements technology for understanding, diagnosing, and treating genetic diseases.” The National Human Genome Research Institute is at the forefront of U.S. research on a molecular level into the mysteries and marvels of the treasury of human heredity, all of our DNA.
- Genome, chromosomal
Genome, chromosomal: All of the genetic information in the chromosomes of an organism. For humans, that is all of the DNA contained in our normal complement of 46 rod-like chromosomes in virtually every cell in the body. (Mature red blood cells, for one exception, have no nucleus and therefore no chromosomes). The chromosomal genome is […]
- Genome, human
Genome, human: All the genetic information in a person. The human genome is made up of the DNA in chromosomes as well as the DNA in mitochondria.
- Genome, mitochondrial
Genome, mitochondrial: The sum of the genetic information contained in the chromosome of the mitochondrion, a structure located in the cytoplasm outside the nucleus of the cell. The mitochondrial genome is composed of mitochondrial DNA (mDNA), a double-stranded circular molecule that contains a limited number of genes. During fertilization, mDNA is transmitted only by the […]
- Genome, mouse
Genome, mouse: All of the genetic information contained in the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus). The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as the mouse have been studied for a number of reasons including the need to improve sequencing and analysis techniques. These nonhuman genomes also provide powerful sets of data against which to compare the […]
- Genome, Mus musculus
Genome, Mus musculus: All of the genetic information contained in Mus musculus, the laboratory mouse. The genomes of particular nonhuman organisms such as the mouse have been studied for a number of reasons including the need to improve sequencing and analysis techniques. These nonhuman genomes also provide powerful sets of data against which to compare […]