A ring of fibrocartilage that runs around the cavity of the scapula (wingbone) in which the head of the humerus (the bone in the upper arm) fits. The labrum deepens this cavity (the glenoid cavity) and effectively increases the surface of the shoulder joint.
Injuries to the glenoid labrum can occur from chronic trauma due to repetitive shoulder motion or from acute trauma. For example, from a fall on an outstretched arm, a direct blow to the shoulder, a sudden pull from trying to lift a heavy object, or a violent motion like pitching a baseball.
Signs and symptoms of a glenoid labrum injury include pain accompanying overhead arm motion, occasional pain in the shoulder at night or during daily activities, decreased range of motion and loss of strength in the shoulder.
Treatment may include anti-inflammatory medication and rest. Exercises to strengthen the rotator cuff muscles may then be recommended. If these measures are not effective, arthroscopic surgery may be done.
- Glial cell
A supportive cell in the central nervous system. Unlike neurons, glial cells do not conduct electrical impulses. The glial cells surround neurons and provide support for and insulation between them. Glial cells are the most abundant cell types in the central nervous system. Types of glial cells include oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, ependymal cells, Schwann cells, microglia, […]
- Glioblastoma multiforme
A highly malignant, rapidly growing type of brain tumor that arises from glial cells in the brain. Early symptoms may include sleepiness, headache, and vomiting. Also called a grade IV astrocytoma. Treatment can involve surgery and radiation treatment.
A brain tumor that begin in a glial, or supportive, cell, in the brain or spinal cord. Malignant gliomas are the most common primary tumors of the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). They are often resistant to treatment and carry a poor prognosis (have a dismal outlook). “Glia” is the Greek word […]
- Glioma, optic
A rare, most commonly benign tumor on the optic nerve or the optic chiasm (the crossing of the two optic nerves). Optic gliomas cause pressure and destruction of normal optic nerve tissue. They are most common in children and teens. Optic gliomas are strongly associated with neurofibromatosis (NF1).
A process leading to scars in the central nervous system that involves the production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia (supporting cells) in areas of damage. Gliosis is a prominent feature of many diseases of the central nervous system, including multiple sclerosis and stroke. After a stroke, neurons die and disappear with replacement gliosis.