One of the multiple inherited disorders of metabolism that interfere with glycogen synthesis or breakdown, leading to the storage of carbohydrates as glycogen in the body. The conditions may affect the liver or the skeletal (striated) muscle, both primary glycogen storage sites. Symptoms and signs depend upon the exact type but can include enlargement of the liver (hepatomegaly), hypoglycemia, and muscle weakness or cramps eventually accompanied by muscle wasting. McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is the most common type of glycogen storage disease. McArdle disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene that encodes myophosphorylase, an enzyme that is essential for glycogenolysis. Other types of glycogen storage disease include von Gierke disease and Pompe disease.
Also known as glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin to which glucose is bound, a measure of the long-term control of diabetes mellitus. The level of glycohemoglobin is increased in the red blood cells of persons with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Since the glucose stays attached to hemoglobin for the life of the red blood cell (normally about […]
A short chain of amino acids that has sugar molecules attached to it. A glycoprotein is similar in structure to a glycopeptide but has a longer chain of amino acids.
A molecule that consists of a carbohydrate plus a protein. Glycoproteins play essential roles in the body. For instance, in the immune system almost all of the key molecules involved in the immune response are glycoproteins. A glycopeptide is similar in structure to a glycoprotein but has a shorter chain of amino acids.
- Glycosylated hemoglobin
Hemoglobin to which glucose is bound. Glycosylated hemoglobin is tested to monitor the long-term control of diabetes mellitus. The level of glycosylated hemoglobin is increased in the red blood cells of persons with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Since the glucose stays attached to hemoglobin for the life of the red blood cell (normally about 120 […]
- gm (gram)
The abbreviation gm stands for gram, a unit of measurement of weight and mass in the metric system. In weight, a gram is equal to a thousandth of a kilogram. In mass, a gram is equal to a thousandth of a liter (one cubic centimeter) of water at 4 degrees centigrade. The word “gram” comes […]