Hepatitis B virus. A virus which primarily causes inflammation of the liver. The hepatitis B virus can be transmitted in several ways including blood transfusion, needle sticks, body piercing and tattooing using unsterile instruments, dialysis, sexual and even less intimate close contact, and childbirth. Symptoms include fatigue, jaundice, nausea, vomiting, dark urine, and light stools. Diagnosis is by blood test(s).
Treatment is with anti-viral drugs and/or hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG). Chronic hepatitis B may be treated with interferon. Healthcare workers accidentally exposed to materials infected with hepatitis B and individuals with known sexual contact with hepatitis B patients are usually given both HBIG and the hepatitis B vaccine to provide both immediate and long-term protection. HBV infection can be prevented by the hepatitis B vaccine, and by avoiding activities that could lead to contracting the virus.
- Hb (hemoglobin)
Hb is the standard abbreviation for hemoglobin.
Hepatitis B immune globulin, which contains antibodies to hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBIG offers prompt but short-lived protection against infection with HBV. HBIG may be given in cases of accidents that carry a transmission risk when the exposed person has not received the HBV vaccine.
Blood in the urine. Hematuria may or may not be accompanied by pain, but it is always abnormal and should be further investigated. Painful hematuria can be caused by a number of disorders, including infections and stones in the urinary tract. Painless hematuria can also be due to many causes, including cancer.
- Hematuria, gross
Blood in the urine that can be seen with the naked eye. Hematuria may or may not be accompanied by pain, but it is always abnormal and should be further investigated.
- Hematuria, microscopic
Blood in the urine that is visible only under a microscope. There is so little blood that it cannot be seen without magnification. Microhematuria is in contrast to gross hematuria, in which the blood is so plentiful that it is visible to the naked eye. Hematuria in any amount is abnormal and should be further […]