Dirofilaria immitis. A common parasite of dogs in many parts of the world that occurs in other animals, including cats, but rarely infects humans. The adult worms, which are up to 10 inches (25 cm) in length, typically live in the dog’s pulmonary artery and right side of the heart. Inflammation and thickening of the heart may result in heart failure, respiratory insufficiency, chronic cough, and vomiting. The disease can be fatal.
The female worms produce microfilariae that are found in the dog’s blood. The microfilariae are ingested by a mosquito when it feeds on a dog, the microfilariae mature into infective juveniles in the vector, and the infection is transmitted to a new host when the mosquito feeds. Many species of mosquitoes serve as vectors for the heartworm.
ProHeart 6, a twice-a-year time-released heartworm medication, was recalled in 2004 at the request of the FDA after thousands of dogs suffered adverse reactions, including liver and bleeding abnormalities followed in some cases by death. The active ingredient in ProHeart 6 is moxidectin. Other agents are available to treat heartworm.
- Heat cramps
Stop all activity, and sit quietly in a cool place. Drink clear juice or a sports beverage. Do not return to strenuous activity for a few hours after the cramps subside because further exertion may lead to heat exhaustion or heat stroke. Seek medical attention for heat cramps if they do not subside within 1 […]
- Heat exhaustion
cool, non-alcoholic beverages, as directed by your physician rest cool shower, bath, or sponge bath an air-conditioned environment lightweight clothing
- Heat prostration
Overheating of the body due to extreme weather conditions. Unrelieved hyperthermia can lead to collapse and death, particularly in the elderly. Prevention via air conditioning, ventilation, and drinking extra water is the key for vulnerable persons. In emergency cases, injections of saline solution and rapid cooling of the body may be needed. Also known as […]
- Heat rash (Pictures)
Heat rash is an irritation of the skin that results from excessive sweating during hot and humid weather. Heat rash appears as clusters of red papules or blisters on the skin. It is more likely to occur on the neck and upper chest, in the groin, under the breasts, and in elbow creases. Children are […]
- Heat syncope
Sudden dizziness, feeling faint and sometimes fainting experienced after exercising in the heat. The skin appears pale and sweaty but is generally moist and cool. The pulse may be weakened, and the heart rate is usually rapid. Body temperature is normal.