Rupturing of the tissue that separates the vertebral bones of the spinal column.
The center of the disc, which is called the nucleus, is soft, springy and receives the shock of standing, walking, running, etc. The outer ring of the disc, which is called the annulus (Latin for ring), provides structure and strength to the disc. The annulus consists of a complex series of interwoven layers of fibrous tissue that hold the nucleus in place.
A herniated disc is often referred to as a slipped disc. This term came from the action of the nuclear tissue when it is forced from the center of the disc. The nuclear tissue located in the center of the disc can be placed under so much pressure that it can cause the annulus to rupture.
When the disc has herniated or ruptured, it may create pressure against one or more of the spinal nerves which can cause pain, weakness or numbness in the neck and arm. Other names for herniated discs are prolapsed and ruptured discs.
Picture of herniated disc between L4 and L5
Cross-section picture of herniated disc between L4 and L5
Abnormal protrusion of tissue through an opening.
The surgical repair of a hernia. Herniorrhaphy may be done under local or general anesthesia using a conventional incision or a laparoscope. The term “herniorrhaphy” comes from hernio-, referring to a hernia + the Greek rhaphe, a seam = putting a seam (or suture) in a hernia.
Semisynthetic drug derived from morphine. Discovered in 1874, it was introduced commercially in 1898 by the Bayer company in Germany. The name heroin was coined from the German heroisch meaning heroic, strong. Heroin is stronger (more potent) than morphine.
- Heroin addiction
Physical addiction to heroin, often with concurrent use of other opiates when heroin itself is not available. Treatment is by opiates withdrawal, either gradual or sudden. Medication may be used to ease the physical effects of withdrawal, which include goosebumps, cramping, body aches, nausea, and intense craving. Opiate blockers and agonist/antagonist drugs may be used […]
A viral illness in which small, painful ulcers and sores are found inside the mouth. It is accompanied by sore throat and fever. Herpangina is most common in children aged 3-10 but can occur at any age. Herpangina is usually caused by Coxsackie group A viruses. The illness typically resolves within a week with no […]