One of the US National Institutes of Health.
The mission of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders is to “conduct and support biomedical research and research training on normal mechanisms as well as diseases and disorders of hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language that affect 46 million Americans.”
The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders was established in 1989 and arose by fission from the National Institute of Neurological Diseases.
- Institute, National Eye (NEI)
One of the US National Institutes of Health, NEI’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” The National Eye Institute was established in […]
- Institutional Review Board
IRB. A group of scientists, doctors, clergy, and consumers at each health care facility that participates in a clinical trial. IRBs are designed to protect study participants. They review and must approve the action plan for every clinical trial. They check to see that the trial is well designed, does not involve undue risks, and […]
Currently, insulin is derived from recombinant (human) sources. Regular (rapid onset, short-acting) and NPH (slower onset, longer duration) human insulin are the most commonly-used preparations. An ultrarapid-acting insulin analog, insulin lispro injection (Humalog(r)) is a chemically-modified, natural insulin. It was approved by the FDA in June, 1996. Insulin is administered by injection via the subcutaneous […]
- Insulin pump
A pump for delivering insulin in order to achieve tight blood sugar control and lifestyle flexibility while minimizing the effects of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). The pump is composed of a pump reservoir similar to that of an insulin cartridge, a battery-operated pump, and a computer chip that allows the user to control the exact […]
- Insulin resistance
The diminished ability of cells to respond to the action of insulin in transporting glucose (sugar) from the bloodstream into muscle and other tissues. Insulin resistance typically develops with obesity and heralds the onset of type 2 diabetes. It is as if insulin is “knocking” on the door of muscle. The muscle hears the knock, […]