The production of immunity to a disease by inoculation of an attenuated form of the virus causing the disease.
Named after the English physician Edward Jenner (1749-1823). Jenner exploited the folk knowledge that people who caught cowpox from their cows could not catch smallpox to develop a method of vaccination against smallpox using an attenuated form of the virus. Also known as Jenner’s method and the jennerian method.
The story, briefly told, is as follows. In May 1796 a dairymaid, Sarah Nelmes, consulted Dr. Jenner about a rash on her hand. He diagnosed cowpox and Sarah confirmed that one of her cows, a Glouchester cow named Blossom, had recently had cowpox, a mild infection of cows that causes a some weeping spots called pocks on their udders, but nothing more. Milkmaids occasionally caught cowpox from the cows. Although they developed a small number of pocks, usually on the hand, and they might become mildly ill, the disease did not otherwise trouble them. It was also known that cowpox could pass not only from cow to person from person to person.
Jenner decided to test the protective properties of cowpox by giving it to someone who had not yet had smallpox. He selected James Phipps, the 8-year-old son of his gardener and on May 14 made a few scratches on James’ arm and rubbed into them some material from one of the pocks on Sarah’s hand. A few days later James became mildly ill with cowpox but was well again a week later. To test whether the cowpox would protect James from smallpox, on July 1 Jenner variolated him by scratching into his skin scab material from someone with smallpox. James did not develop smallpox then or later.
- Jenny Craig
Jenny Craig is a diet program that originated in Australia in 1983 in Australia and started U.S. operations in 1985. The program teaches participants how to eat the foods they want in small, frequent portions and to increase energy levels by increasing activity. At the final level, the program teaches clients how to build more […]
- Jet lag
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- Jewett staging system
A system for determining the stage of a prostate cancer. The system uses ABCD. The letters “A” and “B” designate cancers that are confined to the prostate. The letter “C” applies to cancers that have grown out of the prostate but have not yet metastasized (spread) to lymph nodes or other sites. And the letter […]
- Jimmy Fund
A children’s cancer fund that has been responsible for highly significant work, especially on chemotherapy, that has reduced the death rate with some childhood cancers — particularly, the most common form of leukemia in children — from 90% to 10%. The Fund was started by Dr. Sidney Farber, the father of modern chemotherapy.
Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia.