Nitrogen in a liquid state. Liquid nitrogen is supercool — about 200 degrees Celsius (320 degrees Fahrenheit) below zero — and is used for cryopreservation, cryosurgery, and cryomedicine.
Liquid nitrogen is invaluable for preserving blood and bone marrow cells, sperm, ova, early embryos, and, in the microbiology laboratory, a variety of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, etc). In cryosurgery, a super-chilled scalpel may be used to remove cancer tissue.
In dermatology, liquid nitrogen is commonly used to freeze benign growths, precancers, and skin cancers. The liquid nitrogen is usually applied by a spray bottle (canister) or a cotton swab. It is the thawing process that damages the cells. Liquid nitrogen is also known as LN2.
A brain malformation characterized by microcephaly and the lack of normal convolutions (folds) in the brain. Lissencephaly literally means “smooth brain.” It is caused by defective neuronal migration, a defect in the process in which nerve cells move from their place of origin to their permanent location. The surface of a normal brain is formed […]
McGraw-Hill Professional, 2008.
A disease that is caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis is an important public health problem in North America. The disease affects primarily pregnant women, newborns, and anyone who is immunocompromised. Symptoms include fever, muscle aches, nausea, and diarrhea. If infection spreads to the nervous system, symptoms such as headache, […]
A metric measure of capacity that is equal to the volume of 1 kilogram of water at 4′ Celsius and at standard atmospheric pressure of 760 millimeters of mercury. There are 1,000 cubic centimeters, or 1 cubic decimeter, in 1 liter. A liter is a little more than 1 quart (1.057 US liquid quarts). Abbreviated […]
A naturally occurring salt that, in purified form, is used to treat certain psychiatric disorders, especially bipolar disease The therapeutic level of lithium’the amount needed to treat bipolar disorders’is perilously close to the level that can cause toxicity, so monitoring of blood levels is required. Symptoms of lithium toxicity include diarrhea, vomiting, blurred vision, loss […]